Division of Nuclear Medicine



Several staff members are actively involved in research. Most of these research projects are in collaboration with clinical departments in Tygerberg Academic Hospital, including those of Cardiology, Neurology, Neuropsychiatry, Respiratory Medicine, Surgery, Radiation Oncology, Haematology and Urology.


The Division has access to state-of-the-art PET/CT facilities with all scanners being accredited for research scanning byEARL.​ 

Members of the Division are co-investigators on multiple research projects including those studying infection (predominantly tuberculosis), brain function (dementia, movement disorders, anxiety), cancer (lymphoma, gynaecological malignancies), and radiodosimetry (radionuclide therapy applications). Nuclear Medicine also frequently collaborates in research projects funded by the International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA) and the South African Medical Research Council. The Division has close ties with the NuMeRI Node for Infection Imaging – an affiliated research PET/CT unit.

Two specialist radiopharmacies support the Division’s clinical research activities and radiopharmacy staff conduct ongoing research in several fields, including quality management and Ga-68 generators and radiopharmaceuticals.

The Division plays host to MSc, MMed, PhD, and postdoctoral researchers.

A selection of published research papers appears below (last 10 years):


Goussard P, Burger C, Rabie H, Andronikou S.  Biopsy site identified with FDG PET-CT for diagnosis of tuberculosis in a child. BMJ Case Rep 2022; 15:e247420  http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2021-247420

Marengo M, Martin CJ, Rubow S, Sera T, Amador Z, Torres L. Radiation Safety and Accidental Radiation Exposure in Nuclear Medicine.  Seminars in Nuclear Medicine 2021; 



Berndorfler BD, Holness JL, Warwick JM.  Repeatability of glomerular filtration rate studies performed using 99mTc-DTPA in a population including cancer patients. Nuclear Medicine Communications 2021;42:261–266 doi: 10.1097/MNM.0000000000001326

Holness JL Brink A, Davids MR, Warwick JM.  Estimated glomerular filtration rate in children:  adapting existing equations for a specific population. Paediatric Nephrology 2021;36:669-683 doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00467-020-04770-6

Goussard P, Andronikou S, Mfingwana L, Rabie H, Janson JT, Doruyter AGG, Morrison J, Donald PR.  Extensive pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis in a child presenting with a chest wall abscess: The value of different modes of imaging.

Kleynhans J, Rubow S, Le Roux JS, Marjanovic-Painter B, Zeevaart JR, Ebenhan T.   Production of [68Ga] Ga-PSMA:  Comparing a manual kit-based method with a module-based automated synthesis approach.

Van Heerden J, Kruger M, Esterhuizen TM, Hendricks M, Du Plessis J, Engelbrecht G, Janse Van Vuuren M, Van Emmenes B, Uys R, Burger C, Nyakale N, More S, Brink A.  The association between tumour markers and meta-iodobenzylguanidine scans in South African children with high-risk neuroblastoma.

Jooma JA, Warwick JM, Doruyter AGG.  Is progressive accumulation of radiolabelled white cells a valid positive criterion in suspected vascular graft/endograft infections? Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2021;61:529-530 doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2020.09.012


Burger C, Holness JL, Smit DP, Griffith-Richards SB, Koegelenberg CFN, Ellmann A.  The role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in Suspected Intracular Sarcoidosis and Tuberculosis. Ocular Immunology and Inflammation. 2020; 0(0):1-8

Edge J, Budge M, Webner A, Doruyter A, Cilliers G, Malherbe F. Metastatic screening for patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer: Who and how? South African Journal of Oncology. 2020;4(0):6. doi:10.4102/sajo.v4i0.94

Ekoume FP, Boersma HH, Dong À Zok F, Rubow SM. Validation of a cost-effective alternative for a radiochromatography method to be used in a developing country. EJNMMI Radiopharm Chem. 2020;5(1):9. doi:10.1186/s41181-020-0092-1

Holness JL, Bezuidenhout K, Davids MR, Warwick JM. Validation of equations to estimate glomerular filtration rate in South Africans of mixed ancestry. S Afr Med J. 2020;110(3):229-234-234. doi:10.7196/SAMJ.2020.v110i3.13995

le Roux J, Rubow S, Ebenhan T, Wagener C. An automated synthesis method for 68Ga-labelled ubiquicidin 29–41. J Radioanal Nucl Chem. 2020;323(1):105-116. doi:10.1007/s10967-019-06910-1

Malherbe ST, Chen RY, Dupont P, et al. Quantitative 18F-FDG PET-CT scan characteristics correlate with tuberculosis treatment response. EJNMMI Res. 2020;10(1):8. doi:10.1186/s13550-020-0591-9

Sebikali MJ, Warwick JM, Doruyter AG. Combined versus subtraction-only technique in parathyroid scintigraphy: effect on scan interpretation. Nucl Med Commun. 2020;Publish Ahead of Print. doi:10.1097/MNM.0000000000001239



Burger C, Holness JL, Smit DP, Griffith-Richards S, Koegelenberg CFN, Ellmann A. The Role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in Suspected Intraocular Sarcoidosis and Tuberculosis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm.

Holness JL, Fleming JS, Chirehwa MT, Warwick JM. Propagation of measurement errors in glomerular filtration rate determination: a comparison of slope-intercept, single-sample and slope-only methods. Nucl Med Commun. 2019;40(4):333-342. doi:10.1097/MNM.0000000000000977

Mekonnen BW, Warwick JM, Holness JL. Validation of Glomerular Filtration Rate Measurement with Blood Sampling from the Injection Site. J Nucl Med Technol. 2019;47(4):305-308. doi:10.2967/jnmt.119.229153

Simon D, Irusen EM, Warwick JM, Doruyter A, Koegelenberg CFN. Simple Anatomical Calculations Possibly As Accurate As Three-Dimensional Lobar Quantification with SPECT-CT in Predicting Lung Function after Pulmonary Resection. Respiration. Published online May 2, 2019:1-4. doi:10.1159/000497462

Simonds H, Botha MH, Ellmann A, et al. HIV status does not have an impact on positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) findings or radiotherapy treatment recommendations in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer. Int J Gynecol Cancer. Published online August 13, 2019:ijgc-2019-000641. doi:10.1136/ijgc-2019-000641

Twycross SH, Burger H, Holness J. The utility of PET-CT in the staging and management of advanced and recurrent malignant melanoma. S Afr J Surg. 2019;57(3):44-49.



Dondi M, Paez D, Torres L, et al. Implementation of Quality Systems in Nuclear Medicine: Why It Matters. An Outcome Analysis (Quality Management Audits in Nuclear Medicine Part III). Semin Nucl Med. 2018;48(3):299-306. doi:10.1053/j.semnuclmed.2017.12.001

Doruyter A, Dupont P, Stein DJ, Lochner C, Warwick JM. Nuclear neuroimaging in social anxiety disorder: a review. J Nucl Med. Published online October 5, 2018:jnumed.118.212795. doi:10.2967/jnumed.118.212795

Doruyter A, Dupont P, Taljaard L, Stein DJ, Lochner C, Warwick JM. Resting regional brain metabolism in social anxiety disorder and the effect of moclobemide therapy. Metab Brain Dis. 2018;33(2):569-581. doi:10.1007/s11011-017-0145-7

Lawal I, Louw L, Warwick J, et al. The College of Nuclear Physicians of South Africa Practice Guidelines on Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy in Neuroendocrine Tumours. S Afr J Surg. 2018;56(3):55-64.

Maharaj M, Korowlay N. The association of human immunodeficiency virus and skeletal metastases in breast cancer using Tc-99m methyl diphosphonate bone scan. World J Nucl Med. 2018;17(3):178-181. doi:10.4103/wjnm.WJNM_58_17

Malherbe ST, Dupont P, Kant I, et al. A semi-automatic technique to quantify complex tuberculous lung lesions on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computerised tomography images. EJNMMI Res. 2018;8(1):55. doi:10.1186/s13550-018-0411-7

Morkel M, Ellmann A, Warwick J, Simonds H. Evaluating the Role of F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Scanning in the Staging of Patients With Stage IIIB Cervical Carcinoma and the Impact on Treatment Decisions. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2018;28(2):379-384. doi:10.1097/IGC.0000000000001174

Onimode YA, Dairo DM, Ellmann A. Pattern of presentation of Graves' disease and response to radioiodine therapy in South African men. Pan Afr Med J. 2018;29:48. doi:10.11604/pamj.2018.29.48.13655

Prince D, Rossouw D, Rubow S. Optimization of a Labeling and Kit Preparation Method for Ga-68 Labeled DOTATATE, Using Cation Exchange Resin Purified Ga-68 Eluates Obtained from a Tin Dioxide 68Ge/68Ga Generator. Mol Imaging Biol. 2018;20(6):1008-1014. doi:10.1007/s11307-018-1195-x

Vuletic D, Dupont P, Robertson F, Warwick J, Zeevaart JR, Stein DJ. Methamphetamine dependence with and without psychotic symptoms: A multi-modal brain imaging study. NeuroImage: Clinical. 2018;20:1157-1162. doi:10.1016/j.nicl.2018.10.023



Dondi M, Torres L, Marengo M, et al. Comprehensive Auditing in Nuclear Medicine Through the International Atomic Energy Agency Quality Management Audits in Nuclear Medicine Program. Part 2: Analysis of Results. Semin Nucl Med. 2017;47(6):687-693. doi:10.1053/j.semnuclmed.2017.07.004

Dondi M, Torres L, Marengo M, et al. Comprehensive Auditing in Nuclear Medicine Through the International Atomic Energy Agency Quality Management Audits in Nuclear Medicine (QUANUM) Program. Part 1: the QUANUM Program and Methodology. Semin Nucl Med. 2017;47(6):680-686. doi:10.1053/j.semnuclmed.2017.07.003

Doruyter A, Groenewold NA, Dupont P, Stein DJ, Warwick JM. Resting-state fMRI and social cognition: an opportunity to connect. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2017;32(5):e2627. doi:10.1002/hup.2627

Prince D, Rossouw D, Davids C, Rubow S. Development and Evaluation of User-Friendly Single Vial DOTA-Peptide Kit Formulations, Specifically Designed for Radiolabelling with 68 Ga from a Tin Dioxide 68 Ge/68 Ga Generator. Mol Imaging Biol. 2017;19(6):817–824.

Thompson EG, Du Y, Malherbe ST, et al. Host blood RNA signatures predict the outcome of tuberculosis treatment. Tuberculosis. 2017;107:48-58. doi:10.1016/j.tube.2017.08.004



Maharaj M, Korowlay N, Ellmann P. The Complimentary Role of Methoxy-Isobutyl-Isonitrile and Hand-Held Gamma Probe in Adamantinoma. World J Nucl Med. 2016;15(1):50-52. doi:10.4103/1450-1147.167600

Esmail H, Lai RP, Lesosky M, et al. Characterization of progressive HIV-associated tuberculosis using 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission and computed tomography. Nature Medicine. 2016;22(10):1090-1093. doi:10.1038/nm.4161

Malherbe ST, Shenai S, Ronacher K, et al. Persisting positron emission tomography lesion activity and Mycobacterium tuberculosis mRNA after tuberculosis cure. Nature Medicine. 2016;22(10):1094-1100. doi:10.1038/nm.4177

Pretorius E, Davis R, Doruyter A, Ascott-Evans B. Latest diagnostic approaches to determine the cause of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome, in the South African setting. Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa. 2016;21(3):47-50. doi:10.1080/16089677.2016.1212965

Doruyter AGG, Lochner C, Jordaan GP, Stein DJ, Dupont P, Warwick JM. Resting functional connectivity in social anxiety disorder and the effect of pharmacotherapy. Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging. 2016;251:34-44. doi:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2016.04.009



Du Toit R, Shaw JA, Irusen EM, von Groote-Bidlingmaier F, Warwick JM, Koegelenberg CFN. The diagnostic accuracy of integrated positron emission tomography/computed tomography in the evaluation of pulmonary mass lesions in a tuberculosis-endemic area. S Afr Med J. 2015;105(12):1049-1052. doi:10.7196/SAMJ.2015.v105i12.10300

Holness J, Fleming J, Warwick J. Measuring GFR Using the Plasma Clearance of (99m)Tc-DTPA. Am J Kidney Dis. 2015;65(5):806. doi:10.1053/j.ajkd.2015.02.333

Jimenez-Heffernan A, Ellmann A, Sado H, et al. Results of a Prospective Multicenter International Atomic Energy Agency Sentinel Node Trial on the Value of SPECT/CT Over Planar Imaging in Various Malignancies. J Nucl Med. 2015;56(9):1338-1344. doi:10.2967/jnumed.114.153643

Sathekge M, Warwick JM, Doruyter A, Vorster M. Appropriate indications for positron emission tomography/computed tomography: College of Nuclear Physicians of the Colleges of Medicine of South Africa. S Afr Med J. 2015;105(11):894-896. doi:10.7196/SAMJ.2015.v105i11.10180

Shaw JA, Irusen EM, Groote-Bidlingmaier F von, et al. Integrated positron emission tomography/computed tomography for evaluation of mediastinal lymph node staging of non-small-cell lung cancer in a tuberculosis endemic area: A 5-year prospective observational study. S Afr Med J. 2015;105(2). Accessed May 10, 2019. https://www.ajol.info/index.php/samj/article/view/114031

Van der Bijl P, Doruyter A, de Decker R, Lawrenson J, Comitis G, Hewitson J. Chest pain on exertion after the Takeuchi repair of anomalous origin of the left coronary artery: right ventricular ischemia due to severe pulmonary outflow tract obstruction. World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg. 2015;6(1):90-92. doi:10.1177/2150135114544756

Vorster M, Doruyter A, Brink A, et al. Appropriate indications for positron emission tomography/computed tomography, 2015. S Afr Med J. 2015;106(1 Pt 2):105-122. doi:10.7196/SAMJ.2016.v106i1.10181

Doruyter AG, Hartley T, Ameyo JW, Davids MR, Warwick JM. Hybrid imaging using low-dose, localizing computed tomography enhances lesion localization in renal hyperparathyroidism. Nucl Med Commun. 2014;35(8):884-889. doi:10.1097/MNM.0000000000000131


Ellmann A, Holness J. Nuclear medicine in oncology 1: Lymphoma, and cancer of the lung, colon, and oesophagus. Continuing Medical Education. 2013;31(8):279-283-283.

Ellmann A. The role of FDG-PET in the interim evaluation of therapy response in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Transfus Apher Sci. 2013;49(1):40-42. doi:10.1016/j.transci.2013.05.023

Holness JL, Fleming JS, Malaroda AL, Warwick JM. (99m)Tc-DTPA volume of distribution, half-life and glomerular filtration rate in normal adults. Nucl Med Commun. 2013;34(10):1005-1014. doi:10.1097/MNM.0b013e328364aa12

Warwick J, Lotz J. Integrated imaging - the complementary roles of radiology and nuclear medicine. South African Journal of Radiology. 2013;17(4):149-153. doi:10.4102/sajr.v17i4.11

Warwick J, Lotz J. Integrated imaging - the complementary roles of radiology and nuclear medicine. Continuing Medical Education. 2013;31(8):298-303-303.

Warwick J. Brain imaging with SPECT and PET. Continuing Medical Education. 2013;31(8):307-309-309.

Warwick J. Nuclear medicine in South Africa. Continuing Medical Education. 2013;31(8):278.



Jordaan GP, Warwick JM, Nel DG, Hewlett R, Emsley R. Alcohol-induced psychotic disorder: brain perfusion and psychopathology--before and after anti-psychotic treatment. Metab Brain Dis. 2012;27(1):67-77. doi:10.1007/s11011-011-9273-7

Warwick JM, Carey PD, Cassimjee N, et al. Dopamine transporter binding in social anxiety disorder: the effect of treatment with escitalopram. Metab Brain Dis. 2012;27(2):151-158. doi:10.1007/s11011-012-9280-3



Ding J, Chen H, Qiu C, et al. Disrupted functional connectivity in social anxiety disorder: a resting-state fMRI study. Magn Reson Imaging. 2011;29(5):701-711. doi:10.1016/j.mri.2011.02.013

Maharaj M, Korowlay NA. The Role of Routine Whole Volume SPECT Reconstruction in Comparison to Cine Raw Data in the Detection of Extracardiac Uptake on Myocardial Perfusion Scans. World J Nucl Med. 2011;10(1):9-13. doi:10.4103/1450-1147.82111

Warwick JM, Rubow S, du Toit M, Beetge E, Carey P, Dupont P. The Role of CT-Based Attenuation Correction and Collimator Blurring Correction in Striatal Spect Quantification. Int J Mol Imaging. 2011;2011. doi:10.1155/2011/195037

Warwick JM, Sathekge MM. PET/CT scanning with a high HIV/AIDS prevalence. Transfusion and Apheresis Science. 2011;44(2):167-172. doi:10.1016/j.transci.2011.01.014