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Politicians shouldn’t incite xenophobic violence shouldn’t incite xenophobic violenceCallixte Kavuro<p>Politicians should refrain from making statements that incite xenophobic violence and should rely on the appropriate legal mechanisms to address immigration and refugee-related problems, writes Dr Callixte Kavuro (Public Law) in an opinion piece for <em>Daily Maverick</em> (22 July).<br></p><ul><li><p>Read the article below or click <a href=""><strong class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-5-0" style="">here</strong></a><strong class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-5-0" style=""> </strong>for the piece as published.</p></li></ul><p><strong>Callixte Kavuro*</strong></p><p>Xenophobic violence in South Africa has been perpetrated recently by truck drivers who are demanding 100% employment of locals in the industry. We have also seen a series of attacks on immigrants living in informal settlements in Vredenburg in the Western Cape – their lives were threatened and they were instructed to leave the town.  </p><p>If it is to make any impact on xenophobia in the country, the South African government needs to consider the factors that trigger such violence against immigrants originating from African countries.</p><p>Three categories of immigrants, namely economic migrants, refugees and asylum-seekers, are frequently viewed (in the mainstream media and on social media platforms) as undesirable people as they are believed to impose a heavy burden on the state purse because they need state support to improve their quality of life. Many of them do not meaningfully contribute to economic growth. </p><p>The perception of their undesirability stems from the fact that the admission of immigrants to the country is, by law, based on self-sufficiency and economic independency. This implies that all those who cannot support themselves and their families are legally undesirable as immigrants and can only be considered for admission to the country if they are asylum-seekers escaping  persecution or oppression in their home countries. </p><p>It's is important for South Africans to know that immigrants can legitimately be admitted in the country to work or set up a business. In these situations, they are granted either general work, critical skills, or business visas or permits. Moreover, general work visas are issued only to immigrants where South Africans with the relevant skills are not available for appointment. </p><p>Worth noting is that this limitation does not apply to refugees and asylum-seekers, who enjoy an automatic right to work in terms of the regulations on refugees because they are in the greatest need of work to support themselves.</p><p>Some immigrants who are not asylum-seekers and who also do not meet the immigration law requirement of self-sufficiency abuse the country's asylum management system to regularise their stay. Economic migrants who do not meet the requirement for a work or business visa, may turn to claims for asylum as they anticipate that the process to determine the genuineness of their application will be held up for a long time due to backlogs in the system.  While they are waiting for the decision on their requests for asylum, they are permitted to engage in economic activities. </p><p>This particular immigration problem is of serious to concern to politicians who struggle to address it, but this does not warrant making statements that incite and fuel xenophobic violence such as we've seen on several occasions.</p><p>Several of our politicians refer to immigrants, especially those living in townships or working in the informal sector, as “illegal foreigners". They also use the influx of economic migrants as an excuse to justify the country's failure to deliver on the promise of a “better life for all", especially to those still trapped in abject poverty, unemployment and intolerable living conditions. </p><p>Immigrants are loosely blamed for society's ills and accused of committing violent crimes and stealing jobs from locals despite the lack of evidence to support such perceptions. </p><p>Such attitudes fuel xenophobia and send a message to South Africans that all immigrants have no right to stay, work or do business in the country. </p><p>We've seen how this has led to the looting of immigrants' shops and the maiming or injuring and even killing of innocent people. Little or nothing is done to compensate those whose shops have been looted or to pay for damages for pain and suffering in situations where immigrants were physically and seriously injured or lose their loved ones. Little is done to investigate these crimes and bring the perpetrators to book. There is also no political will to hold accountable those involved in perpetrating discrimination, hate speech, and xenophobic violence. This highlights government's failure to accept and admit the existence of xenophobia.</p><p>It doesn't help that the voices of immigrants are always missing from political discussions and debates where the concerns of citizens are communicated to the government; where the government accounts for or is held accountable on immigration; or where citizens participate in the decision-making processes concerning the improvement of the  wellbeing of immigrants. Accordingly, immigrants lack any political muscle as decisions affecting them are taken in their absence.</p><p>We saw this play out in 2017 when the government tightened its refugee laws with a view to restricting the right of asylum-seekers to work and study. According to the 2017 Refugee Amendment Act, asylum-seekers do not deserve to live in communities, but should remain in processing centres which NGOs have compared to detention centres. It is argued that this arrangement would remove their need to work or study. </p><p>Restrictions on the rights to work and study were further tightened in the draft refugee regulations for the act published in 2018.</p><p>We've also seen how a lack of political muscle played out in the Covid-19 regulations when refugees and asylum-seekers were not only excluded from accessing most socio-economic relief packages, but were also restricted from engaging in the economy after lockdown. This sent a further message to communities that refugees and asylum-seekers do not belong and, no doubt, contributed to the rise in current xenophobic attacks.</p><p>It is not disputed that South Africa has the right to self-preservation, but this imposes on it the duty to admit or expel immigrants or asylum-seekers only in such cases and upon such conditions as it has determined in terms of immigration and refugee law. </p><p>The on-going xenophobic attacks can be prevented. But for this to happen, people will have to change their perceptions of economic migrants, refugees and asylum-seekers who are trying to create a better future for them and their children in South Africa. </p><p>Politicians, in particular, should play their part by refraining from making statements that incite xenophobic violence and by relying on the appropriate legal mechanisms that exist to address immigration and refugee-related problems. The government has sufficient policing entities that can enforce its regulations in a non-violent manner. </p><ul><li><strong>Photo</strong>: People in Johannesburg march against xenophobia. <strong>Credit</strong>: Wikimedia Commons.</li></ul><p><strong>*Dr Callixte Kavuro</strong> is a post-doctoral fellow in the Department of Public Law at Stellenbosch University.<br></p><p><br></p>
SU researchers selected for prestigious international fellowship researchers selected for prestigious international fellowshipCorporate Communication/Korporatiewe Kommunikasie [Rozanne Engel]<p>​</p><p>Two Stellenbosch University (SU) researchers have recently been selected to be part of the prestigious Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study fellowship at Harvard University in the United States of America.</p><p>Dr Debra Shepherd, a lecturer at the Economics Department and Prof Pumla Gobodo-Madikizela, research chair in Social Change and Transformation at SU, will be part of 42 fellows representing six countries selected for the 2020–2021 cohort.</p><p>Radcliffe is Harvard University's institute for advanced study and each year, the institute hosts leading scholars, scientists, artists, and practitioners from around the world in its renowned fellowship program. This year there was nearly 1 400 applicants for the fellowship.</p><p>According to Shepherd she feels “incredibly lucky" to have received this opportunity at Harvard. “I believe that this fellowship will provide me with another lens through which to engage with diverse knowledge communities, as well as building upon and expanding the networks of my department and SU," says Shepard.</p><p>For Madikizela it will be the second time that she will be part of a fellowship at Harvard. While completing her PhD at the University of Cape Town in the late 1990s, she spent a year at Harvard University's Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences on a Dissertation Writing Fellowship. After being invited to join the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) where she was appointed to lead the Human Rights Violations Committee of the TRC in the Western Cape, she had to suspend her PhD. </p><p>“When I left the TRC in April 1998, I returned to Harvard University to take up a fellowship at the Radcliffe Institute where I completed my doctoral dissertation. After completing my PhD, I stayed four more years at Harvard, teaching part-time at Radcliffe and other colleges in Cambridge. The time at Harvard was the most productive period of my academic career. This fellowship is an important opportunity to test my ideas in the context of an international group of scholars leading in a range of different fields," says Madikizela.</p><p>Shepherd also holds an Iso Lomso Early Career African Researcher Fellowship (2018–2020) with the Stellenbosch Institute for Advanced Study and says she cannot wait to share her research with the other fellows.</p><p>“Radcliffe refers to itself as 'a cross-disciplinary laboratory of ideas', so I am excited to see how other academics are bridging the boundaries of their own fields. I also relish the chance to be an ambassador not only for Stellenbosch University, but also for Africa and the Global South."</p><p>Radcliffe is planning a virtual fellowship at this time, with the possibility of a residential component, pending decisions on Harvard-wide policies by university leaders, informed by epidemiological models of the spread of COVID-19 in the United States.</p><p>For more information on the Radcliffe Fellowship, click <a href=""><strong class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="">here</strong></a>.​<br></p><p><br></p>
Virtual conference explores role of arts in peace and reconciliation conference explores role of arts in peace and reconciliation Corporate Communication/Korporatiewe Kommunikasie [Rozanne Engel]<p>​</p><p>Stellenbosch University (SU) recently co-hosted an international conference with the theme, <strong>Art in Peace and Reconciliation: A Transnational Perspective, </strong>in collaboration with the Association of Commonwealth Universities (ACU) to explore how the arts, in all its diversity, can be used to open up space for healing, dialogue, reconciliation and transitional justice across the Commonwealth.</p><p> This inaugural event held with the ACU forms part of the ACU's Peace and Reconciliation Network and the conference was held virtually due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.</p><p>The Association of Commonwealth Universities is an international organisation dedicated to building a better world through higher education. International collaboration is central to this ambition.</p><p>The free online event brought together leading academics, researchers, artists and professional staff from more than 40 universities across the Commonwealth for a series of interactive panel discussions. The holder of a research chair Studies in Historical Trauma and Transformation at SU, Prof Pumla Gobodo-Madikizela, was the leading force behind organising the conference, together with Prof Shaun Ewen of Melbourne University and Alex Wright, ACU's Head of Public Affairs. All the technical logistics of the conference were hosted by SU and coordinated by Lidia du Plessis, Coordinator: Staff Mobility Programmes, Centre for Partnerships and Internationalisation at Stellenbosch University International. </p><p>Presentations at the conference by established researchers, emerging scholars and young researchers who are busy completing their doctoral work, focused on representations of the past through the arts and theatre as an ethical act of witnessing trauma that might provide not only ways of acknowledging the past and its transgenerational repercussions in the present, but also the possibility of alternative forms of theoretical knowledge.  </p><p>During the opening and keynote session, Chair of the Commonwealth Peace and Reconciliation Network and SU Rector & Vice-Chancellor, Prof Wim de Villiers said that the conference could not have come at a better time as the whole world is currently taking a stand against racism, violence and injustice.</p><p>“This conference was a long time in the making. Not only does it speak to overcoming conflict in places that have to varying degrees been torn apart by discord, such as South Africa, Northern Ireland, Lebanon and Syria, but it also takes place against the backdrop of the black-lives-matter (#BLM) protests against the brutal killing of George Floyd in Minnesota, USA."</p><p>The ACU's Commonwealth Peace and Reconciliation Network aims to connect and support those interested in peace and reconciliation, facilitating collaboration and sharing approaches to truth telling and reconciliation in society and within universities themselves.</p><p>According to Prof de Villiers, SU is committed to engaging and collaborating with stakeholders, and the university's partners at a local, regional, continental and global level. </p><p>“What happens in the world shapes us as institutions, and what happens on our campuses whether physical or virtual matters to the world. We are all part of something bigger. Transnational collaboration is very important to Stellenbosch University. We set ourselves the vision of becoming Africa's leading research-intensive university, globally recognised as excellent, inclusive and innovative, where we advance knowledge in service of society," said Prof de Villiers.</p><p>The keynote session also included panel speakers Prof Gobodo-Madikizela; Prof John Brewer, Professor of Post-Conflict Studies, The Senator George J Mitchell Institute for Global Peace, Security and Justice, Queen's University, Belfast; and Prof Ewen, Pro Vice-Chancellor (Indigenous) and Foundation Director of the Melbourne Poche Centre for Indigenous Health, The University of Melbourne and Visiting Professor of Indigenous Health and Leadership, King's College, London. </p><p>Prof Gobodo-Madikizela's presentation looked at “Reparative Humanism" and the important role it plays in how people can relate and show empathy to one another's traumas. She also reiterated the importance of Ubuntu in “repairing brokenness" and bringing forth reconciliation.  </p><p>In Prof Brewer's presentation, he looked at the impact of generational trauma among families. He believes that “time does not always allow for healing to happen" in second and third generational victims of trauma, because of unresolved social inequality and justice. </p><p>Prof Ewen explored the importance of reparations of place in his presentation and said that it should be a key component in universities as many institutions are placed on indigenous land, which predates the establishments of many universities.</p><p>“Without reparations the social contract between a university and the local community which provides the institution with the license to operate is weak. Reparations of place as a concept holds much promise to universities as they engage with their place base communities and will help to develop an authentic licence to operate," said Prof Ewen.</p><p>The other sessions during the conference included topics such as the Northern Ireland troubles from 1969–1999, which resulted in almost 3 600 deaths and over 40 000 injuries. A panel discussion addressed historical trauma in South Africa and another session examined profile lessons from the “imagining futures" project, a global cross-disciplinary collaboration focused on archives as negotiations about visions of the future examining whose story will continue to be told and how and whose silenced in moments of post-conflict, displacement and reconstruction.</p><p>There was also a panel session that addressed the university as a site of reform in advancing peace and reconciliation, the role of the arts and implications for decolonising methodologies in teaching and learning, research and engagement, which looked at experiences in South Africa, the United Kingdom and indigenous-settler contexts in Australia and New Zealand.</p><p>The recordings of the conference sessions will be available on demand to all those who registered.</p><p>For more information on the ACU, visit the website <a href=""><strong class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="">here</strong></a><span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="">.​</span><br></p><p><br></p>
Africa day 2020 day 2020A message from Prof Hester Klopper, DVC Strategy and Internationalisation. <p><span style="background-color:#ffffff;color:#333333;font-family:calibri, verdana, trebuchet, helvetica, arial, sans-serif, "helvetica neue";font-size:14px;">This year, Stellenbosch University (SU) will celebrate Africa Day on 25 May 2020, starting with a message from Prof Hester Klopper, DVC Strategy and Internationalisation.</span><br></p><p style="font-size:14px;color:#333333;font-family:calibri, verdana, trebuchet, helvetica, arial, sans-serif, "helvetica neue";background-color:#ffffff;"><br></p><p style="font-size:14px;color:#333333;font-family:calibri, verdana, trebuchet, helvetica, arial, sans-serif, "helvetica neue";background-color:#ffffff;"><strong>Africa Day 2020: Uniting Africa amid the COVID-19 pandemic</strong></p><p style="font-size:14px;color:#333333;font-family:calibri, verdana, trebuchet, helvetica, arial, sans-serif, "helvetica neue";background-color:#ffffff;">The year 2020, however, we face many challenges amid a global health pandemic that also provides opportunities for success and unity. For the past few months, the COVID-19 pandemic has kept countries across the globe in a prolonged lockdown in an endeavour to curb the spread of the virus and thereby saving human lives. Although the epicentre of the virus has mostly been centred around China, Europe and North America, many are holding their breath contemplating the anticipated impact on Africa. But, there is a sense of community and that Africa can unite in its fight against the coronavirus pandemic.<br></p><p style="font-size:14px;color:#333333;font-family:calibri, verdana, trebuchet, helvetica, arial, sans-serif, "helvetica neue";background-color:#ffffff;"></p><p style="font-size:14px;color:#333333;font-family:calibri, verdana, trebuchet, helvetica, arial, sans-serif, "helvetica neue";background-color:#ffffff;">The global response to COVID-19 has been unprecedented, with scientists from across the world contributing significantly to the body of evidence, international and national workgroups and structures to advise governments as they navigate uncharted waters. At Stellenbosch University (SU), the Division for Research Development has recorded more than 20 <a href="/english/Documents/2020/Corporate-Communication-03.pdf" target="_blank" style="color:#666666;"><span style="text-decoration-line:underline;">research initiatives specifically related to the COVID-19 pandemic</span></a>. Much of our research activities in the field of COVID-19 has specifically been collaborations with other African universities to respond to the challenges currently facing the continent – not only around health-related aspects but also around societal issues. In celebrating Africa Day, we would like to highlight a few of SU's research projects addressing the COVID-19 pandemic in Africa, but you can also <a href="/english/AfricaSU/covid-19/covid-19africaprojects" target="_blank" style="color:#666666;"><span style="text-decoration-line:underline;">read more about our research collaborations across the continent</span></a>. These are just some of the activities SU's academics are collaborating on with other partner institutions on the continent to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic.</p><p style="font-size:14px;color:#333333;font-family:calibri, verdana, trebuchet, helvetica, arial, sans-serif, "helvetica neue";background-color:#ffffff;">The University's Centre for Complex Systems in Transition is undertaking a study where colleagues at both SU and the University of Botswana are collaborating to better understand the impact of COVID-19 on the education systems of both their universities. In the field of visual arts, we are exploring ways of investigating the online teaching experiences of educators during the lockdown at SU and the University of Ghana. SU's Division for Nephrology in the Faculty of Medicine and Health Science (FMHS) are collecting data on patients being treated for renal failure with chronic dialysis and transplantation and using the registry platform to capture data on COVID-19 in dialysis and transplant patients. Countries that are part of this initiative include South Africa, Ghana, Kenya, Zambia, Burundi and Botswana. Also, at the FHMS, the Division of Medical Virology is collaborating with the University of Yaounde 1 in Cameroon to better understand the role played by proinflammatory cytokines (the cytokine storm) and their involvement in downstream signalling pathways in COVID-19 disease. The measurement of these cytokines are crucial for a better understanding of the COVID-19 disease progression and for assessing immune and therapeutic responses.</p><p style="font-size:14px;color:#333333;font-family:calibri, verdana, trebuchet, helvetica, arial, sans-serif, "helvetica neue";background-color:#ffffff;">One of SU's academics, Prof Kathryn Chu, was a panellist on a webinar co-hosted by University of Global Health Equity (Rwanda), <a href="" style="color:#666666;"><span style="text-decoration-line:underline;">InciSioN</span></a> and <a href="" style="color:#666666;"><span style="text-decoration-line:underline;">Lifebox</span></a> to discuss and provide solutions to COVID-19-related disruptions to surgical and anaesthesia training in sub-Saharan Africa, and how this compares to the global climate. At SU's Centre for Evidence-based Health Care alone, a number of COVID-19 initiatives have started, such as the COVID-19 Evidence Network to Support Decision-making (COVID-END) to find and use the best evidence to support the evidence-demand and to help reduce duplication in and better coordination of the evidence syntheses, technology assessment and guidelines being produced. In addition, to better understand the impact of COVID-19 on health care systems across the continent, Prof Lillian Dudley participated in a webinar co-hosted by the Consortium for Global Health (CUGH) and AfreHealth.  </p><p style="font-size:14px;color:#333333;font-family:calibri, verdana, trebuchet, helvetica, arial, sans-serif, "helvetica neue";background-color:#ffffff;">At SU, we host the secretariats for various thematic partnership in collaboration with other African Universities. At the Centre for Collaboration in Africa, the secretariats of PeriPeri-U in Disaster Risk Reduction and the AUDA-NEPAD Southern African Network of Water Centres of Excellence (SANWATCE) are coordinating efforts whereby partners are contributing in various national, regional and continental activities specifically related to the COVID-19 pandemic. For example, the partners at Makerere University in Uganda have been a part of the development team of the Coronavirus Resource Centre, a website established to help advance the understanding of the virus, informing the public and briefing policymakers in order to guide response, improve care, and save lives in Uganda. At Bahir Dar University in Ethiopia, colleagues have been working closely with the federal government to provide technical support and advice, contributing to community mobilisation for COVID-19 prevention, treatment and recovery operations action plan, and regional Emergency Operation Centre. Similarly, colleagues at the University of Antananarivo, Madagascar, have been working closely with the Ministry of Disaster Risk Management and Ministry of Population, Social Protection and Women Promotion in the country to advise on strategies and raising awareness about COVID-19 in Madagascar.</p><p style="font-size:14px;color:#333333;font-family:calibri, verdana, trebuchet, helvetica, arial, sans-serif, "helvetica neue";background-color:#ffffff;">History will forever remember 2020 as the year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Although it has had an unprecedented impact on societies across the globe and has in many ways altered life as we know it, the pandemic has provided Stellenbosch University and our partners across Africa with opportunities to be innovative, effect change and contribute through research collaboration towards what has become known as the “new normal". As we celebrate Africa Day amid the devastating impact of a pandemic, let us focus on how we as a continent can unite in finding solutions that serve the unique challenges of Africa and make a contribution to our beloved continent's sustainability and to society at large.</p><p style="font-size:14px;color:#333333;font-family:calibri, verdana, trebuchet, helvetica, arial, sans-serif, "helvetica neue";background-color:#ffffff;">As the father of our democracy, Nelson R. Mandela often stated … “It always seems impossible until it's done." Let's do this together!​</p><p style="font-size:14px;color:#333333;font-family:calibri, verdana, trebuchet, helvetica, arial, sans-serif, "helvetica neue";background-color:#ffffff;text-align:center;">​​​​​<br><br></p><p>Please do visit the Africa SU Platform for more details on our Africa initiatives: <a href="/english/AfricaSU/default" title="" target="_blank" rel="noreferrer noopener" tabindex="-1" style="font-family:"segoe ui", system-ui, "apple color emoji", "segoe ui emoji", sans-serif;font-size:14px;"></a><span style="font-family:"segoe ui", system-ui, "apple color emoji", "segoe ui emoji", sans-serif;font-size:14px;">​</span></p><p><br></p>
Africa united in battle against COVID-19 united in battle against COVID-19Nico Elema<p>On Monday (25 May) we celebrate Africa Day. In an opinion piece for <em>News24</em>, Dr Nico Elema from the Centre for Collaboration in Africa writes about how Africans are united in the battle against COVID-19. <br></p><ul><li>Read the complete article below or click <a href="" style="text-decoration:underline;"><strong class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-5-0" style="text-decoration:underline;">here</strong></a> for the piece as published.</li></ul><p><strong>Africa united in battle against COVID-19</strong></p><p><strong>Nico Elema*  </strong><br></p><p>The year 2020 will probably be remembered for how the COVID-19 pandemic was able to bring the world to a stand-still. In recent history, other pandemics such as SARS (2002), H1N1 Swine flu (2009), and MERS (2012) did cause a global response and disruption, but it is probably fair to say that the COVID-19 pandemic has caused a global response like never seen before, with terms such as 'lockdown', 'social-distancing' and  'the new-normal' now part of our common vocabulary.</p><p style="text-align:justify;">As we celebrate Africa Day on 25 May, we are still in the grips of the COVID-19 pandemic. To date, purely based on the number of cases, the epicenter has moved from China to Europe to North America, with many holding their breath contemplating the anticipated impact on Africa. According to the World Health Organisation, Africa has, to date, reported 1,33% of all cases. Dare I say 'only' 1,33%? Considering that the Americas recorded 44% of all cases, Europe 40%, the Eastern Mediterranean 7%, the Western Pacific 4%, and  South East Asia 3%, Africa, with its 1,3 billion people or close to 17% of the world population. Regarding Africa's low infection rate, experts argue that there is inadequate testing with others asking why the hospitals are not overflowing with patients showing COVID-19 symptoms.  Thus, the verdict could still be out, and will we probably only over time come to grips with the full extent of what we are now facing.<br></p><p style="text-align:justify;">Indeed, many parts of Africa are scarcely populated, but according to the United Nations, around 40 to 45% of Africans live in urban areas, with many living in a number of mega-cities such as Lagos, Kinshasa, Addis Ababa, Cairo, and Johannesburg. To curb the spread of COVID-19 among these people and those living in peri-urban and rural areas, social distancing and the regular washing of hands have been recommended strongly. Here's the challenge though: UNICEF estimate that for 63 percent of people (or 258 million people) in Sub-Saharan African urban areas there's no access to handwashing at home. Given Africa's high urbanisation rate and low access to water, the question can be asked if we are sitting on the proverbial time bomb? <br></p><p style="text-align:justify;">With no blueprint on how to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic, lockdown measures are the norm for many countries. Globally, inequalities are highlighted, with the haves being able to withstand the onslaught of the coronavirus pandemic and the have-nots struggling to find the next meal. With many African countries based on informal labour markets with high unemployment rates, lockdown measures will inevitably increase unemployment rates.  This will put pressure on the social welfare of countries, with the potential to wipe out any economic gains achieved over the past few years. For example, there have been no less than 20 African countries with an annual Gross Domestic growth rates above 5% in the last few years. These include countries such as Ethiopia, Rwanda, Ghana, Tanzania, Egypt, and Kenya to name a few. One could ask the question about how robust these economies are, and whether they will be able to withstand the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.<br></p><p style="text-align:justify;">Despite this rather gloomy picture, there are positives true to the reason why we celebrate Africa Day. There is a sense that Africa is united in its fight against the coronavirus pandemic. At a high-level, the African Union, through its African Union Development Agency NEPAD (AUDA-NEPAD), is coordinating various efforts in response to the pandemic. In early April, the AUDA-NEPAD Response Plan of Action to COVID-19 was launched, directing efforts around six focus areas, which include Health Systems, Food Systems, Skills Development & Employment, Education, National Planning & Data Systems and lastly Sustainable Tourism. Various responses emanate from these focus areas, such as the recently AUDA-NEPAD online Dashboard providing decision-makers with vital data on COVID-19 cases. <br></p><p style="text-align:justify;">The sense of solidarity and unity is also visible in higher education in the continent. For example, the Institut Pasteur in Dakar, Senegal, with its wealth of knowledge in dealing with AIDS and Ebola, is producing rapid COVID-19 testing kits at 1$. At the University of Ghana, scientists have successfully sequenced the genome of the coronavirus in Ghana, and at Addis Ababa University in Ethiopia research is undertaken to determine the psycho-social and economic impacts of the current pandemic. <br></p><p style="text-align:justify;">In Uganda, Makerere University has been a part of the development team of the Coronavirus Resource Centre, a website established to help advance the understanding of the virus, informing the public and brief policymakers in order to guide response, improve care, and save lives in Uganda. Since a major focus of the Makerere University team is doing research and outreach related to refugee health, much of their current focus is monitoring for COVID-19 among refugee communities and camps in the country. Also in the East-African Region, scientists at the University of Nairobi have found that 10% of bats carry the coronavirus. <br></p><p style="text-align:justify;">At Bahir Dar University in Ethiopia, colleagues have been working closely with the federal government providing technical support and advice, contributing to community mobilization for COVID-19 prevention, treatment and recovery operations action plan, and regional Emergency Operation Centre. Similarly, colleagues at the University of Antananarivo, Madagascar, have been working closely with the Ministry of Disaster Risk Management and Ministry of Population, Social Protection and Women Promotion in the country to advise upon strategies and raising awareness about COVID-19 in Madagascar. At my own institution, Stellenbosch University, our Division for Research Development has recorded no less than 23 research initiatives specifically related to the COVID-19 pandemic – some completed, and others in-process and awaiting ethics approval. <br></p><p style="text-align:justify;">These are just a few examples that show that African institutions of higher learning and many other organisations can play their part in collectively helping fellow Africans face the pandemic head-on and  “rise like lions", to use the words of the renowned African poet, Ben Okri.   <br></p><p style="text-align:justify;">Even though we have been forced to re-set the compass and to celebrate Africa Day differently in 2020,  I have a distinct feeling that we will get through this and find ourselves in a better place. <br></p><p style="text-align:justify;"><strong>*</strong><strong>Dr Nico Elema is the Manager of the Centre for Collaboration in Africa at Stellenbosch University. </strong></p><p style="text-align:justify;"> </p><p style="text-align:justify;"> </p><p><br></p>
Disaster risk resilience network Periperi U steps up to help Africa fight COVID-19 risk resilience network Periperi U steps up to help Africa fight COVID-19 SU International <p><br><span style="text-align:justify;">Africa's population is the fastest-growing in the world. Over the next two decades, the continent will account for nearly half of global population growth. For this very reason, w</span><span style="text-align:justify;">hen disaster strikes on the continent, its effect on human lives and livelihoods is very often extremely serious, disrupting and undermining development. Informal settlement fires in Africa's rapidly growing cities spread quickly and lead to deaths and property loss. Flash floods frequently claim many lives and displace thousands from their homes. And as the COVID-19 pandemic has again shown, when disease outbreaks occur, the continent's public health systems struggle to cope. </span><span style="text-align:justify;"> </span><br></p><p style="text-align:justify;">For this reason, Periperi U – a platform for university partnerships to reduce disaster risk in Africa – has since 2006 been coordinating and pooling the expertise of higher education institutions across the continent to reduce local vulnerability and build resilience. From a 2005 pilot with four institutions from Algeria, Ethiopia, South Africa and Tanzania, the Periperi U network (an acronym for “Partners Enhancing Resilience for People Exposed to Risks") has grown to 12 universities from Algiers to Antanarivo, now also including institutions in Cameroon, Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique, Nigeria, Senegal and Uganda. </p><p style="text-align:justify;">According to Alberto Francioli, project manager at the Periperi U secretariat hosted at Stellenbosch University (SU), the network fills the disaster risk research gap on the continent. “Many African countries do not have scientific institutions or research centres such as the South African CSIR, to whom governments can reach out to get a better understanding of issues such as the risk posed by floods or disease, for instance. In those countries, the only ones that can provide this research are higher education institutions." This is why Periperi U's work includes advocating for greater investment in Africa's higher education institutions, along with offering training in disaster risk reduction, and conducting research that builds local disaster risk knowledge and preparedness. The success of the network, which is financially supported by USAID, recently earned it recognition as an International Centre of Excellence for Risk Education and Learning (ICoE-REaL) from the global research programme Integrated Research on Disaster Risk (IRDR).</p><p style="text-align:justify;">As befits a centre of excellence, Periperi U was quick to lend a hand in curbing the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic once it reached African shores. The network has focused its contribution on raising awareness among its partner universities and in their various local communities. “Most of our partners have developed online platforms that share information on how to combat the coronavirus, how to reduce its spread, daily updates on infections, and where to go in case of emergencies, particularly in countries that do not have ready access to local and international news," says Alberto. “Other partners have also developed outreach programmes that aim to serve their communities." In addition, most Periperi U member institutions are providing essential services and guidance to district and rural populations, who often do not receive as much attention as their inner-city counterparts.  </p><p style="text-align:justify;">Alberto cites a few examples. “Moi University in Eldoret, Kenya, owns a textile factory called Rivatex, who is manufacturing 15 000 masks daily that are being procured by hospitals and other institutions in the region. Over in Uganda, the Periperi U team at Makerere University, whose major focus is research and outreach relating to refugee health, have helped develop the local coronavirus resource centre. And in Stellenbosch, the team from the Research Alliance for Disaster and Risk Reduction (RADAR) at SU have been collaborating with provincial and national disaster management authorities to help develop content for online training and short courses to respond to and address the COVID-19 risk. They are also collecting data, keeping a timeline and documenting changes, developments and impacts as the crisis unfolds to enable a proper post-event analysis." </p><p style="text-align:justify;">For more on how Periperi U is making science work for society, contact Alberto at <a href=""></a> or 021 808 9401. <br>Photo: Periperi U secretariat Staff at Stellenbosch University (SU).  From the right : Alberto Francioli, Mujahid Gabier and <span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:calibri, sans-serif;">Carinus De Kock.</span><br></p>
Coping with COVID-19 on student exchanges abroad with COVID-19 on student exchanges abroad SU International <p>​​​​​<br></p><p style="text-align:justify;">To many Maties, attending a semester exchange abroad is the stuff of dreams. It offers an exciting opportunity to meet new people, explore different parts of the world, immerse oneself in the local culture, and experience new ways of learning at your host institution.  However, as the small group of Maties who have had to remain abroad during the COVID-19 pandemic will tell you, being on an exchange during a global pandemic poses its fair share of challenges. </p><p style="text-align:justify;">Despite the abnormal circumstances, however, they have been demonstrating amazing resilience, creativity and true Matie spirit. In a series of webinars held with these students abroad, they described how they had been adapting to their host universities, including how the health crisis had helped them form new bonds with fellow students in their residences and dorms, whom they would not have ordinarily met. </p><p style="text-align:justify;">Euné Coetzee, SU student currently on exchange in Italy, is sitting out the lockdown in the city of Bologna. “When COVID-19 broke out, I was aware that it could become a global crisis. It spread to Italy shortly after I arrived. Although my host city falls outside the designated 'red zone', one can't help fearing the virus and feeling uncertain about the way forward," says Euné. She is grateful that the University of Bologna's academic programme has continued online, which means she has been keeping busy with assignments and reports. Euné is also fortunate to still have a roommate, who has kept her company through the crisis.</p><p style="text-align:justify;">Some Maties were able to return to South Africa just before the local lockdown took effect. Shahina Patel, an MEng researcher, was on exchange at the University of Oslo in Norway when that institution, including all its research centres, was shut down in the second week of March. “I was worried that I would find myself stuck in Norway during the COVID-19 pandemic. Fortunately, I was able to return home on 24 March, catching the last connecting Emirates flight," she explains. Shahina says both her Stellenbosch and Norwegian supervisors had constantly checked in on her until she was able to return to South Africa.</p><p style="text-align:justify;">While the rapid spread of the virus sparked widespread concern, the responses of most host universities abroad did help ease some of the exchange students' worries. According to Elizabeth Gleeson, on exchange at the University of Padova, Italy, the institution has been doing everything possible to put international students at ease through regular correspondence. “They have also implemented free internet access to enable the use of online facilities and platforms for classes and meetings, among others," Elizabeth says.</p><p>Apart from attending online lectures, most students have also found other, fun and creative ways to keep busy. Elizabeth and a friend are whiling away the time in between studies doing different activities, including baking and enjoying a glass of champagne in the residential garden. And over at Montana State University, SU student Féroll-Jon Davids will be featuring in two shows as part of a virtual music concert series. </p><p>The semester exchange programmes are facilitated by Stellenbosch University International (SU International). From Sciences Po in Paris and the University of Leipzig in Germany, to the University of West Virginia in the United States and Nagoya University in Japan, Stellenbosch students have an array of options to choose from at more than 100 SU partners abroad. These vary from shorter summer-school options to full six-month semester exchanges. Students may also qualify for a travel bursary from SU International's Global Education Centre to attend a mobility opportunity. Consult SU International's website, <a href="/english/SUInternational"></a>, for more details.<br><br></p><p><br></p>
Valuable Innovation and Research contribution enabled through international collaboration Innovation and Research contribution enabled through international collaborationSU International <p>​<br></p><p style="text-align:justify;">The internationalisation of higher education has become a formidable force for change in the past decade. Having long outgrown its baby shoes of mere development cooperation, cross-border education today involves high-impact partnerships and collaborative research, often with competitive commercial outputs. The latest example of this is Stellenbosch University (SU) Engineering master's student Derwalt Erasmus, whose research during a student mobility exchange in Madrid, Spain, enhanced an existing innovation and generated a new one, both in the critical field of clean energy. </p><p style="text-align:justify;">Derwalt embarked on a five-month Erasmus+ student mobility exchange offered by Alianza 4 Universidades (A4U) – a partnership between four major Spanish universities. The exchange took the form of a research collaboration with a renewable-energy expert at Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (UC3M) on the subject of Derwalt's master's thesis. Before leaving for Spain, the student had developed the SUNFlower, a device generating clean energy, for which a patent was filed through Innovus, SU's technology transfer company. </p><p style="text-align:justify;">Working with his Spanish supervisor, Prof Alberto Sánchez-González, an expert in heliostat field modelling and development, Derwalt set about enhancing the effectiveness and technological readiness of the SUNflower. “This international mobility opportunity enabled further development of my invention," he explains. “In collaboration with Prof Sánchez-González, I was able to model the distribution of concentrated solar radiation applied on the surface of the device to inherently predict its performance and efficiency." Moreover, their findings in fine-tuning the SUNflower resulted in another invention, the Tadpole, a solar thermal device that serves as a new form of heat transfer. </p><p style="text-align:justify;">Going forward, this collaboration will be reported on in a joint publication by SU, the University of Pretoria, UC3M and Erasmus+, as well as at the Solar Paces conference scheduled to take place in New Mexico later this year. Derwalt will also be fleshing out his innovations further through the SU-based international collaborative platform STERG (the Solar Thermal Energy Research Group), located in the Department of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering. </p><p style="text-align:justify;">With relevant and valuable innovations such as these, it comes as no surprise that the Innovus faculty patent award for 2019 went to the Faculty of Engineering, who managed to secure a whopping 20 patents for the year. The award forms part of an annual celebration of researchers' achievements hosted by Innovus, who interacts between SU and industry, supports and develops entrepreneurship and innovation at the University, and helps commercialise SU's innovations. </p><p style="text-align:justify;">Derwalt's work is in line with SU's core strategic theme of “Research for impact", which is inter alia aimed at conducting collaborative and interdisciplinary research that addresses the greatest challenges of society and helps ensure sustainability. Reflecting on the international exchange, Derwalt says: “It was enriching to have the opportunity to engage with an expert at UC3M to further develop my work. Our experience together was a journey that started with the sharing of ideas, which became increasingly practical over time, and eventually culminated in a valuable research contribution. I learnt that there is significant potential to find meaning in an encounter with someone from a different educational background and culture."</p><p style="text-align:justify;"> In between his work, he also had a chance to immerse himself in the Spanish way of life. “I was able to learn the Spanish language, experience the culture, get to know the country and establish new friendships – all of this largely enabled through the Erasmus+ student network."</p><p> </p><p><br></p>
At least wash your hands better, asks microbiologist least wash your hands better, asks microbiologistEngela Duvenage<p>Ten spyte van al die tegnologiese vooruitgang van die afgelope jare is daar een basiese ding wat die mense net nog nooit leer goed doen het nie: om hande te was. As ons dit kan leer beter doen, sal daar heelwat minder siektes en kieme in die wêreld versprei. <br></p><p>Dit was die boodskap van prof Stephen Forsythe, 'n afgetrede professor in mikrobiologie aan Nottingham Trent Universiteit in die VK, en skrywer van die handboek “The Microbiology of Safe Food" wat wyd voorgeskryf word aan universiteitstudente. Hy was die openingspreker by 'n middagsessie oor die toekomstige rol van wetenskap in die handhawing van voedselveiligheid. Die geleentheid, wat deur die Sentrum vir Voedselveiligheid aan die Universiteit Stellenbosch se Departement Voedselwetenskap aangebied is, het 'n vol saal van belangstellendes uit die plaaslike voedselbedryf gelok.</p><p>Forsythe het 'n oorsig gegee oor toekomstige tendense wat die voedselbedryf te wagte kan wees in die toekoms. Dit sluit die invloed van klimaatsverandering en 'n groei in insekboerdery en verwante produkte in. Verbruikers is ook toenemend op soek na meer plantgebaseerde proteien-produkte, en kosse wat minder bymiddels bevat. Antimikrobiese weerstandigheid, waardeur kieme aangepas het om nie meer vatbaar vir sommige middels van behandeling te wees nie, strek ook die voedselbedryf tot kommer.  </p><p>“Ons moet eenvoudig aanpas volgens hierdie tendense, want hulle is hier om te bly," het hy genoem.</p><p>Forsythe sê dat die oorgrote hoeveelheid van die 8914 voedselprodukte wat wêreldwyd tussen 2008 en 2018 van die mark onttrek is, rou vis, reeds voorbereide voedsel en neute en vrugte was. Dis meestal gedoen weens die voorkoms van onverklaarde bestanddele wat allergiese reaksies by mense kan veroorsaak, en die voorkoms van kieme soos E.coli en Salmonella wat verband hou met voedselvergiftiging.</p><p>Volgens Forsythe word daar tot vier gevalle van voedselvergiftiging daagliks in die VSA aangemeld. Hy sê soos wat bevolkings al ouer raak, sal hulle meer vatbaar raak vir infeksies, en daarom moet standaarde rondom voedselveiligheid verskerp word.</p><p>Forsythe sê die tegnologie het die afgelope jare sporadies verbeter waarmee daar vir die voorkoms van siekteveroorsakende organismes getoets kan word. As basiese riglyne van higiëne egter net in huise, fabrieke en op plase gevolg kan word, sal dit heelwat probleme uitsny. </p><p>Ook by die gespreksessie vir die bedryf was prof Mieke Uyttendaele van die Departement Voedelveiligheid—en Voedselkwaliteit aan die Universiteit van Ghent in België, en prof Wilhelm Holtzapfel, president van die Internasionale Komitee oor Voedselmikrobiologie en -higiëne (ICFMH), wat teenwoordiges toegespreek het oor onderskeidelik die waarde daarvan om besluite oor voedselveiligheid te maak op grond van goeie bewyse en bevindinge, en die rol wat ICFMH in die handhawing van standaarde rondom voedselveiligheid. Me Isabelle Desforges van Biomerieux in Frankryk het oor die waarde van mikrobiese standaarde soos ISO en ander mikrobiologiese toetsmetodes gepraat.</p><p><strong>Sentrum vir Voedselveiligheid</strong><br><strong> </strong>Die sprekers was op Stellenbosch vir die jaarlikse advieskomiteevergadering van die Sentrum vir Voedselveiligheid in die US Departement Voedselwetenskap. Dié is danksy ondersteuning vanaf die Suid-Afrikaanse voedselbedryf in November 2018 op die been gebring is na afloop van die listeriose-krisis, en is steeds die enigste van sy soort in die land. Sedertdien werk navorsers aan die US, kollegas en lede uit die voedselbedryf saam om spesifieke kwessies oor voedselveiligheid te ondersoek, raad daaroor te gee, bewusmaking te kweek en waar moontlik beleid te verander.</p><p>“Dis 'n voorreg om 'n mense van hul kaliber op ons advieskomitee te hê, en ook terselfdertyd die kans te gebruik dat hulle hul kennis met die bedryf en ook gedurende spesiale lesings met ons studente deel," het voedselmikrobioloog prof Pieter Gouws, direkteur van die US Sentrum vir Voedselveiligheid, gesê. </p><p>Prof Gouws sê hy is dankbaar vir die vordering wat oor die afgelope jaar of wat reeds gemaak is, en die goeie samewerking tussen vennote in die akademie en voedselbedryf. </p><p>“Ons leer wedersyds by mekaar," het hy benadruk. “Nie verniet is ons leuse “innovation through collaboration" nie. </p><p>Studies is onder meer reeds voltooi oor die voorkoms van antimikrobies weerstandighede bakterieë onder vee en wildlewe in Suid-Afrika. 'n Opname is gedoen oor die voorkoms van Campylobacter and Arcobacter spesies in volstruise. 'n One Health-benadering is gevolg om <em>Listeria monocytogenes</em>, die bakterie wat in 2018 die ongekende listeriose-uitbraak in Suid-Afrika, uit te ken en om vas te stel of dit algemeen in voedsel, die omgewing of kliniese isolate in die Wes-Kaap voorkom. <br></p><p><strong>Foto onderskrif</strong></p><p>'n Inligtingsessie oor tendense rondom voedselveiligheid is aan lede van die bedryf aangebied deur die Sentrum vir Voedselveiligheid by die Universiteit Stellenbosch. Die internasionale sprekers was (van links) prof Stephen Forsythe, 'n professor in mikrobioloog, voorheen van Nottingham Trent Universiteit in die VK, prof Wilhelm Holtzapfel, president van die Internasionale Komitee oor Voedselmikrobiologie en -higiëne (ICFMH), prof Mieke Uyttendaele van die Universiteit van Ghent in België, en me Isabelle Desforges van Biomerieux in Frankryk. Saam met hulle is (voor) prof Pieter Gouws van die US Departement Voedselwetenskap en direkteur van die Sentrum vir Voedselveiligheid. Foto: Marco Oosthuizen<br></p><p><br></p><p><br></p>
Hybrid learning – the next wave to hit SU learning – the next wave to hit SU Corporate Communication - Sandra Mulder<p>​​Stellenbosch University (SU) envisages that by 2025, hybrid learning (HL) students will form 25% of the total student body. According to SU's June 2018 enrolment figures, 11% of the institution's students are already HL students.<br></p><p>Over the past five years, blended learning has developed at such a pace at SU that the time has come to expand hybrid learning (HL), making tertiary studies more accessible to those who had not been able to attend university before. With the implementation of hybrid learning, SU joins the ranks of some of the leading international universities that also offer this type of learning. </p><p>Hybrid learning is a method of presenting academic programmes consisting of short contact sessions of a week or two between the lecturer and students, combined with online learning, virtual classes and online liaison between lecturers and fellow students. Blended learning, on the contrary, consists mainly of physical classes combined with the use of technology in a pedagogically accountable way. Blended learning techniques are therefore used for both full-time, residential students and for working students who study part-time. In both instances, students do their own work online or they have online access to additional resources. SU's HL model works in maximum synergy with the full-time academic offerings, ensuring that HL students can also benefit from accessible digitalised academic material. </p><p>Prof Arnold Schoonwinkel, Vice-Rector: Learning and Teaching at SU, has expressed his excitement about the future of hybrid learning. This type of learning is suitable for people who work full-time and are unable to attend classes but who would like to improve their skills. For this segment, the cost is often too high to return to full-time studies. </p><p>With the introduction of HL, SU joins the ranks of some of the world's leading universities who also offer HL programmes. </p><p> “Over the past five years, considerable progress has been made to introduce the latest technology on pedagogic level. This follows a Council project launched about six years ago to examine information and communication technologies and to find ways in which Learning and Teaching could benefit from technological developments," says Schoonwinkel. </p><p>Some of the transformative actions flowing from this Council project include: </p><ul><li>The establishment of the ultramodern Jannie Mouton learning centre with electronic class rooms</li><li>New networks and the availability of faster WiFi to students</li><li>The development of blended learning</li><li>Acquiring new software for student information systems (SUNStudent)</li><li>The development of new courses to train lecturers and students about the use of information technology for teaching and learning. </li></ul><p>In order to grow the number of HL students, it is essential to extend the offering of HL academic programmes. </p><p>According to Schoonwinkel, another 21 HL programmes of at least one academic year and 120 credits each will be added to the total HL learning offering. “We expect to have no fewer than 250 students register for each programme."</p><p>Examples of HL programmes currently being developed are:</p><ul><li>Strategic Human Resource Management PGDip (EMS)</li></ul><ul style="list-style-type:disc;"><li>Biology 124 and Bio-Informatics Honours (Science)</li><li>Cancer Science Research MPhil (Medicine and Health Sciences)</li><li>Structures in Fire Module in Engineering PGDip (Engineering)</li><li>Forestry and Wood Sciences PGDip (AgriScience)</li></ul><p> </p><p>“SU's full-time academic programmes have an excellent flow-through rate. The experience of the HL student and the success rate should build on this characteristic. Limitations in physical infrastructure and other resources make it very difficult to admit more students than are currently being admitted through traditional processes," says Schoonwinkel.</p><p>According to him, the HL strategy combines SU's strengths to grow student numbers cost-effectively. </p><p>“Hybrid learning constitutes a big change for us and it will be the next big wave to hit SU. In the long run, HL could become people's preferred study method. It will also have a transformative effect on people in the workplace who would otherwise not have been able to gain access to a university. It is a known fact that the Fourth Industrial Revolution will necessitate the retraining of many people"</p><p>In the Learning and Teaching Annual Report for 2019 which was tabled at the SU Senate and SU Council recently, it is mentioned that HL offers a solution to contemporary students who choose to study online and who prefer to have the freedom of choice. There is a worldwide tendency that many prospective students rather want to gain access to smaller knowledge units in the form of modules and short courses, rather than obtaining full degrees or diplomas. HL enables SU to cater to this need – also for international students.  </p><p>Increased access to the internet and improved software broaden people's access to learning opportunities, especially for students in underdeveloped countries. According to the annual report, Africa has the largest and fastest-growing youth population in need of education. “SU is in a good position to make a significant social impact on our continent," says Schoonwinkel. </p><p><strong>Current HL offerings and enrolled students per module (June 2018)</strong><strong> </strong></p><p><strong> </strong></p><table class="ms-rteTable-default" width="100%" cellspacing="0"><tbody><tr><td class="ms-rteTable-default" style="width:33.3333%;"><strong>Faculty</strong></td><td class="ms-rteTable-default" style="width:33.3333%;"><strong>Programme/module title</strong></td><td class="ms-rteTable-default" style="width:33.3333%;"><strong>Number of students enrolled in modules</strong></td></tr><tr><td class="ms-rteTable-default"><p>Economic and Management Sciences</p><p> </p></td><td class="ms-rteTable-default">Master of Business Administration (part-time)</td><td class="ms-rteTable-default">3 431</td></tr><tr><td class="ms-rteTable-default">​</td><td class="ms-rteTable-default">Bachelor of Public Administration Honours</td><td class="ms-rteTable-default">2 034</td></tr><tr><td class="ms-rteTable-default">​</td><td class="ms-rteTable-default">Postgraduate Diploma in Business Management and Administration</td><td class="ms-rteTable-default">1 527</td></tr><tr><td class="ms-rteTable-default">​</td><td class="ms-rteTable-default">Postgraduate Diploma in HIV/AIDS Management</td><td class="ms-rteTable-default">1 349</td></tr><tr><td class="ms-rteTable-default">​</td><td class="ms-rteTable-default">Diploma in Public Accountability</td><td class="ms-rteTable-default">377</td></tr><tr><td class="ms-rteTable-default">​</td><td class="ms-rteTable-default">Master of Public Administration</td><td class="ms-rteTable-default">234</td></tr><tr><td class="ms-rteTable-default"><p>Medicine and Health Sciences</p><p> </p></td><td class="ms-rteTable-default">Postgraduate Diploma in Nursing</td><td class="ms-rteTable-default">2 298</td></tr><tr><td class="ms-rteTable-default">​</td><td class="ms-rteTable-default">Master of Public Health/Nutrition</td><td class="ms-rteTable-default">210</td></tr><tr><td class="ms-rteTable-default">​</td><td class="ms-rteTable-default">Master of Nursing</td><td class="ms-rteTable-default">104</td></tr><tr><td class="ms-rteTable-default">​</td><td class="ms-rteTable-default">Bachelor of Nursing Honours</td><td class="ms-rteTable-default">26</td></tr><tr><td class="ms-rteTable-default">Education</td><td class="ms-rteTable-default">Bachelor of Education Honours</td><td class="ms-rteTable-default">749</td></tr><tr><td class="ms-rteTable-default">AgriSciences</td><td class="ms-rteTable-default">Master of Food and Nutrition Science</td><td class="ms-rteTable-default">69</td></tr></tbody></table><p> </p><p><strong> </strong></p><table class="ms-rteTable-default" width="100%" cellspacing="0"><tbody><tr><td class="ms-rteTable-default" style="width:20%;"><strong>Faculty</strong></td><td class="ms-rteTable-default" style="width:20%;"><strong>Total student enrolments (by headcount)</strong></td><td class="ms-rteTable-default" style="width:20%;"><strong>Total FTE students</strong></td><td class="ms-rteTable-default" style="width:20%;"><strong>Hybrid learning FTE students</strong></td><td class="ms-rteTable-default" style="width:20%;"><strong>Hybrid learning FTE students as a % of all FTE students</strong></td></tr><tr><td class="ms-rteTable-default">Economic and Management Sciences</td><td class="ms-rteTable-default">8 927</td><td class="ms-rteTable-default">7 026</td><td class="ms-rteTable-default">1 451,1</td><td class="ms-rteTable-default">20,7%</td></tr><tr><td class="ms-rteTable-default">Medicine and Health Sciences</td><td class="ms-rteTable-default">4 588</td><td class="ms-rteTable-default">3 021</td><td class="ms-rteTable-default">1 133,4</td><td class="ms-rteTable-default">37,5%</td></tr><tr><td class="ms-rteTable-default">Education</td><td class="ms-rteTable-default">1 854</td><td class="ms-rteTable-default">1 604</td><td class="ms-rteTable-default">74,9</td><td class="ms-rteTable-default">4,7%</td></tr><tr><td class="ms-rteTable-default">AgriSciences</td><td class="ms-rteTable-default">2 190</td><td class="ms-rteTable-default">1 494</td><td class="ms-rteTable-default">6,9</td><td class="ms-rteTable-default">0,46%</td></tr><tr><td class="ms-rteTable-default"><strong>Total</strong></td><td class="ms-rteTable-default"><strong>31 765</strong></td><td class="ms-rteTable-default"><strong>24 710</strong></td><td class="ms-rteTable-default"><strong>2 666,3</strong></td><td class="ms-rteTable-default"><strong>10,8%</strong></td></tr></tbody></table><p> </p><p><br></p>