Dr. Martin B Klausen
contact details: 021-8083825
Research interest: Igneous Petrology
Other work/ appointments/ membership:
I am most interested in how mantle-derived,
mafic magmas form at depth (i.e., their petrogenesis), propagate towards the
Earth’s surface (i.e., intrusion mechanisms), diversify and become emplaced in
a variety of ways as different igneous rock types. My focus is more on how these
processes operate during relatively short-lived episodes through Earth’s nearly
4 billion year history, within magmatically intense large igneous provinces
(LIPs). Many of these LIPs formed along extensional rifts that often relate to
the break-up of one of the four major supercontinents that formed during the
last 3 billion years of Earth’s evolution.
LIPs related to the most recent
break-up of the Gondwana/Pangaea supercontinent still preserve volcanic
remnants, as well as exposes shallowly eroded sub-volcanic intrusions on both
continental and oceanic plates, where (1) geochemical sections through lava
piles provide the best temporal control on magma compositional evolutions, (2)
feeder dykes better constrain emplacement modes and identify source centres,
and (3) mafic-ultramafic layered intrusions elucidate magma chamber processes
that are responsible for magma diversification through fractional
LIPs related to older supercontinental
break-ups are more deeply eroded and commonly exposed as Precambrian giant (up
to 2500 km-long) mafic dyke swarms (e.g., www.largeigneousprovinces.org),
which through the 21st century have become attractive research
objects for multi-disciplinary global initiative towards reconstruction of
Precambrian supercontinents (e.g., www.supercontinents.org).
Such reconstructions rely heavily on precise baddeleyite U-Pb ages and
paleopoles, but where subsequent investigations into the magma petrogenesis and
intrusion mechanisms can also be applied to such dated and more completely
reconstructed LIP settings.
I am currently studying the
petrogenesis, diversifications and emplacement mechanisms of Precambrian giant
mafic dyke swarms across South Africa’s Kaapvaal Craton (Klausen et al 2010) and
the North Atlantic Craton in Greenland (Nilsson et al 2013), and wish to expand
that research to include the less accessible Greater Congo Craton. My
contributions are mainly towards the mapping of giant dyke swarms, collecting
field data and samples for bulk rock geochemistry and petrography, and thereby
assist with matching up compositionally similar dyke swarms (as well as any
preserved lavas and/or sills) from different supercontinental fragments.
As our global database on LIP
case studies grow, any systematic differences in their petrogenesis may be
attributed to different settings, mantle sources and ways whereby large volumes
of primary magmas are locally produced during relatively short periods, and,
over a longer time perspective, to how these processes may have changed during
the last 3 billion years of Earth’s evolution. Amongst the many possibilities,
I am most keen to investigate a particular group of more noritic (or so-called
‘boninitic’) Precambrian LIPs (including South Africa’s famous Bushveld
Complex), which tend to host richer Cu-Ni-PGE and chromium deposits than
others. My idea is that these particular magmas were sourced from a meteorite
impact modified sub-continental lithospheric mantle, and evidence for such a
relationship will be sought from a conjugate swarm of boninitic norite dykes
that coincides with a newly discovered ~800 Ma older meteorite impact structure
at Maniitsoq, southern West Greenland.
Apart from LIPs, I am also
applying similar, standard igneous petrology research methods to investigate some
of Earth’s earliest examples of subduction zone systems (i.e., the >2.95 Ga Nigerlikasik
supracrustal belt in SW Greenland; Klausen et al 2011b) and intra-continental alkaline
rifts (i.e., the ~2.7 Ga Skjoldungen Alkaline Province in SE Greenland). I also
investigate a very diverse group of lamprophyric sheet and dyke intrusions, which
may relate to carbonatites but where a Phanerozoic swarm in southern W
Greenland was emplaced along a proto-rift and Proterozoic appinites in SE
Greenland were emplaced during the latter stages of the 1850-1740 Ma Ketilidian
Orogeny. The latter research sub-topic is in line with Stellenbosch’s past
research expertise into carbonatites and related intrusions.
from lustrous education opportunities through the University of Copenhagen
(Denmark), Nordic Volcanological Institute (Iceland) and the Danish Lithosphere
Centre in the 1990’s and subsequent career opportunities at South African
Universities, I am particularly indebted to my research collaborations with the
Royal Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) and the ingenious
baddeleyite U-Pb dating facility at Lund’s University (Prof Ulf Söderlund), in
Klausen, MB., Szilas, K, Kokfelt, TF., Keulen, N, Schumacher, JC., Berger, A. Tholeiitic to calc-alkaline metavolcanic transition in the Archean Nigerlikasik Supracrustal Belt, SW Greenland. Precambrian Research 2017: 302: 50-73.
El Bahat, A., Ikenne, M., Cousens, B., Söderlund, U., Ernst, R., Klausen, M.B. & Youbi, N. (2017). New constraints on the geochronology and Sm-Nd isotopic characteristics of Bas-Draa mafic dykes, Anti-Atlas of Morocco. Journal of African Earth Sciences 127, 77-87.
A, NILSSON MKM, KLAUSEN MB, SÖDERLUND U. Mesoproterozoic dykes in the
Timmiarmiit area, Southeast Greenland: evidence for a continuous Gardar dyke
swarm across Greenland’s North Atlantic Craton. GFF 2016; 138:255-275.
AA, KLAUSEN MB. A centennial reappraisal of the Vredefort
pseudotachylytes: shaken, not stirred by meteorite impact. JOURNAL OF THE
GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY 2016; 173:954-965.
A, RÅDMAN J, SÖDERLUND U, KLAUSEN MB. U–Pb baddeleyite geochronology and
geochemistry of the White Mfolozi Dyke Swarm: unravelling the complexities of
2.70–2.66 Ga dyke swarms across the eastern Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa. GFF
JR, KLAUSEN MB, HAMILTON MA, MÄRZ N, SÖDERLUND U, ROBERTS RJ. Baddeleyite
U–Pb ages and geochemistry of the 1875– 1835 Ma Black Hills Dyke Swarm across
northeastern South Africa: Part of a trans-Kalahari Craton back-arc setting?
GFF 2016; 138:183-202.
U, KLAUSEN MB, ERNST RE, BLEEKER W. New advances in using large igneous
provinces (LIPs) to reconstruct ancient supercontinents. GFF
H, DE KOCK MO, KLAUSEN MB, SÖDERLUND U, BEUKES NJ. Paleomagnetism
and chronology of B-1 marginal sills of the Bushveld Complex from the eastern
Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa . GFF 2016;
WABO H, OLSSON
JR, DE KOCK MO, HUMBERT F, SÖDERLUND U, KLAUSEN MB. New
U–Pb age and paleomagnetic constraints from the Uitkomst Complex, South Africa:
clues to the timing of intrusion . GFF 2016; 138:152-163.
KLAUSEN MB, NILSSON MKM, BARTELS A. Post-orogenic Proterozoic dyke swarms.
Chapter 12 in Kolb, J., Stensgaard, B.M. &
Kokfelt, T.F. (eds.) Geology and Mineral Potential
of South-East Greenland. 2016: 8 pp.
NILSSON MKM, BOTHMA R. Palaeoproterozoic dykes. Chapter
7 in Kolb, J., Stensgaard, B.M. & Kokfelt, T.F. (eds.) Geology
and Mineral Potential of South-East Greenland. 2016: 12 pp.
KOKFELT TF, KLAUSEN
MB. Geochronology of the Skjoldungen Alkaline province , SE Greenland.
2016: 122 pp.
TRANE C, KLAUSEN MB, TEGNER C. Skjoldungen alkaline province. Chapter 2
in Kolb, J., Stensgaard, B.M. & Kokfelt, T.F. (eds.) Geology
and Mineral Potential of South-East Greenland. 2016: 9 pp.
KLEIDING JK, KLAUSEN MB, KOKFELT TF, LESHER C, TEGNER C, ULRICH T. Late
Cretaceous to Palaeogene rocks. Chapter 13 in Kolb,
J., Stensgaard, B.M. & Kokfelt, T.F. (eds.) Geology
and Mineral Potential of South-East Greenland. 2016: 16 pp.
Gumsley, A., Olsson, J.R., Söderlund, U., de Kock, M., Hofmann, A., & Klausen, M.B., 2015. Precise U-Pb baddeleyite age dating of the Usushwana Complex,southern Africa – Implications for the Mesoarchaean magmatic and sedimentological evolution of the Pongola Supergroup, Kaapvaal Craton. Precambrian Research 267, 174–185.
Mäkitie, H., Data, G., Isabirye, E., Mänttäri, I., Huhma, H., Klausen, M.B., Pakkanen, L. & Virransalo, P., 2014. Petrology, geochronology and emplacement model of the giant 1.37 Ga arcuate Lake Victoria Dyke Swarm on the margin of a large igneous province in eastern Africa. Journal of African Earth Sciences 97, 273-297.
Klausen, M.B. & Kokfelt, T.F., 2014. Field report from the 2011 field season on the Skjoldungen Alkaline Province, South East Greenland. GEUS Report 2014-81, 98 p.
Klausen, M.B., Söderlund, U., and Ernst, R.E., 2013. Precise U–Pb ages
and geochemistry of Palaeoproterozoic mafic dykes from southern West Greenland:
Linking the North Atlantic and the Dharwar cratons. Lithos, 174, 255-270.
2012 and before:
Olsson, J.R., Söderlund, U., Hamilton, M.A., Klausen, M.B. and
Helffrich, G.R., 2011. A late Archaean radiating dyke swarm as a possible clue
to the origin of the Bushveld Complex. Nature Geoscience, 4, 865-869,
Klausen, M.B., Berger, A. and Kokfelt, T.F., 2011a. Archaean
structures around the proposed tectonic boundary along Frederikshåb Isblink,
southern West Greenland (62°25´–62°45´N). GEUS Report, 2011-14, 30 p.
Kokfelt, T.F., Keulen, N.T., Berger, A. and Schumacher, J.C., 2011b. The
Nigerlikasik supracrustal belt in the Kvanefjord area, South-West Greenland:
Geochemistry and petrology of a tholeiitic─calc-alkaline metavolcanic sequence.
GEUS Report, 2011-11, 68 p.
Klausen, M.B., Söderlund, U., Olsson, J.R., Ernst, R.E.,
Armoogam, M., Mkhize, S.W. and Petzer, G., 2010. Petrological discrimination
among Precambrian dyke swarms, Eastern Kaapvaal Craton (South Africa). Precambrian Research, 183, 501-522.
Hofmann, A., Klausen, M.B., Olsson, J.R., Ernst, R.E. and Persson, P.-O., 2010.
Towards a complete magmatic barcode for the Zimbabwe craton: Baddeleyite
U–Pb dating of regional dolerite dyke swarms and sill complexes. Precambrian
Research, 183, 399-398.
Olsson, J.R., Söderlund, U., Klausen, M.B. and Ernst, R.E.,
2010. U–Pb baddeleyite ages linking major Archean dyke swarms to volcanic-rift
forming events in the Kaapvaal craton (South Africa), and a precise age for the
Bushveld Complex. Precambrian Research, 183, 490-500.
Lubnina, N., Ernst, R.E, Klausen, M.B. and Söderlund, U,
2010. Paleomagnetic studies on the NeoArchean-Paleoproterozoic dykes in the
Kaapvaal Craton. Precambrian Research, 183, 523-552.
Klausen, M.B., 2009. The Lebombo monocline and associated
feeder dyke swarm: diagnostic of a successful and highly volcanic rifted
margin? Tectonophysics, 468, 42-62.
Klausen, M.B., 2006a. Geometry and mode of emplacement of
dike swarms around the Birnudalstindur igneous centre, SE Iceland. J. Volc.
Geothermal Res. 151, 340-356.
Klausen, M.B., 2006b. Similar dike thickness variation
across three volcanic rifts within the North Atlantic Region: Implications for
intrusion mechanisms. Lithos, 92, 137-153.
Klausen, M.B., 2004. Geometry and mode of emplacement of the
Thverartindur cone sheet swarm, SE Iceland. J. Volc. Geothermal Res. 138,
Riley, T.R., Millar, I.L., Watkeys, M.K. Curtis, M.L., Leat,
P.T., Klausen, M.B. and Fanning, C.M., 2004. 4 U-Pb zircon (SHRIMP) ages for
the Lebombo rhyolites, South Africa: refining the duration of Karoo volcanism.
J. Geol. Soc., London, 161, 547-550.
M.B. and Larsen, H.C., 2002. The East Greenland coast-parallel dyke swarm and
its role in continental breakup. In Menzies, M.A., Klemperer, S.L., Ebinger,
C.J., and Baker, J., eds., Volcanic Rifted Margins. Boulder, Colorado,
Geological Society of America Special Paper, 362, 133-158.