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International Bonhoeffer Congress January 2020https://www.sun.ac.za/english/Lists/news/DispForm.aspx?ID=7255International Bonhoeffer Congress January 2020Marita Snyman<h2>​The XIII International Bonhoeffer Congress was held from 19-23 January 2020 at the Faculty of Theology, Stellenbosch. <br></h2><p><strong></strong></p><p><strong>International Graduate students' colloquium</strong></p><p>A graduate students' colloquium was held (prior to the XIII International Bonhoeffer Congress) at Volmoed Conference and Retreat Centre near Hermanus from Friday 17<sup>th</sup> of January till Sunday 19<sup>th</sup> of February 2020. </p><p>Masters' students, doctoral students and post-doc researchers working on Bonhoeffer shared during the colloquium their research and experience with the group and this led to lively discussions. We are grateful for the presence at the colloquium of leading Bonhoeffer scholars such as Clifford Green, Reggie Williams, Barry Harvey, John de Gruchy, Michael DeJonge, Jennifer McBride, Jens Zimmermann, and Keith Clemens who not only responded to the students' presentations but also shared insights and stories from their own involvement in Bonhoeffer studies over the years.   The colloquium was attended by about 40 people.</p><p> <br></p><p><strong>The XIII International Bonhoeffer Congress, Stellenbosch 19-23 January 2020</strong></p><p>The 13<sup>th</sup> International Bonhoeffer Congress took place from 19-23 January 2020 and was hosted by the Faculty of Theology and the Beyers Naudé Center for Public Theology at Stellenbosch University, in partnership with the Department of Religion and Theology at the University of the Western Cape. </p><p style="text-align:justify;">The theme of our conference was “How the coming generation is to go on living?" – a theme drawn from Bonhoeffer's remarkable text “After Ten Years," in which we read: “The ultimate responsible question is not how I extricate myself heroically from a situation but [how] a coming generation is to go on living? Only from such a historically responsible question will fruitful solutions arise." </p><p style="text-align:justify;">It was the hope of the conference that participants would grapple with the way in which this remark of Bonhoeffer shows a concern to take responsibility not only for our own personal and communal life in all its complexity and richness but also for the kind of values and society that future generations will inherit from us. We believe that the pertinence of Bonhoeffer's question is felt anew in our day as we experience threats on a global level to socio-political, economic and inter-religious stability and solidarity. Also within the South African context there have been major sea changes since the first truly democratic elections were held in 1994. And the reality of climate change and ecological devastation implies that the question of how future generations are going to go on living is linked to the fact that we live on a  planet in jeopardy.</p><p>It is against this background that the congress convened. The congress started with a church service at the Stellenbosch United Church, with Archbishop Thabo Makgoba as preacher. A special word of thanks to the Ecumenical Board of the Faculty of Theology, and in particular the local congregations for their role in the planning of the service and for sponsoring the refreshments afterwards.</p><p>Keynote speakers at the congress included Wolfgang Huber, Nadia Marais, Pumla Gobodo-Madikizela, Teddy Sakupapa, and Reggie Williams. In the final session John de Gruchy moderated a panel of mostly younger scholars addressing the conference theme. </p><p>Two of the keynote sessions (on the Wednesday of the congress) took place at the University of the Western Cape, followed by an excursion to Cape Town and included visits to the St George's Cathedral and the District Six Museum and Homecoming Centre (where we also had our conference dinner). </p><p>There were 170 registered participants at the congress, of which 70 presented seminar papers. About 100 of the conference participants were from abroad.</p><p>On the Monday night a book launch was held of three Bonhoeffer publications with strong South African links, namely John de Gruchy's <em>Bonhoeffer's Questions: A Life-changing Conversation</em> (Lexington Books, 2019); Nico Koopman and Robert Vosloo, <em>Reading Bonhoeffer in South Africa after the Transition to Democracy</em> (Peter Lang Verlag, 2020) and Andreas Pangritz, <em>The Polyphony of Life: Bonhoeffer's theology of music</em> (edited by John de Gruchy and John Morris, and translated by Robert Steiner (Cascade Books, 2019).</p><p>We are also grateful for a spirited performance by the Stellenbosch Libertas Choir on the Monday evening of the conference. <br></p><p><br></p>
Colloquium with Swedish colleagueshttps://www.sun.ac.za/english/Lists/news/DispForm.aspx?ID=6443Colloquium with Swedish colleaguesMarita Snyman<p style="text-align:justify;"><strong>Beyers Naude Centre Colloquium on 13 February 2019 at the Faculty of Theology </strong></p><p style="text-align:left;"><strong>​​​Humour, Emancipation and Reconciliation: </strong><strong style="text-align:center;">A Critical Inquiry</strong></p><p style="text-align:justify;"><strong></strong><strong>Professor </strong><strong>Ola Sigurdson</strong> is professor of systematic theology at the Department of Literature, History of Ideas, and Religion. Mainly writing in the intersection between continental theory and systematic theology, he is interested in Political Theology, Theology and the Arts, as well as traditional Dogmatics. His most recent (English) book is Heavenly Bodies: Incarnation, the Gaze, and Embodiment in Christian Theology (Eerdmans, 2016). </p><p style="text-align:left;"><strong>​Generosity and love as justice </strong><strong style="text-align:center;">on the road towards justice​</strong></p><p><strong>Dr Martin Westerholm</strong> is Senior Lecturer in Systematic Theology at the University of Gothenburg, and Editor of the International Journal of Systematic Theology.  His work includes books on the theology of Karl Barth and the theology of Scripture, and articles on a range of themes in theology, philosophy, and ethics.  His interests sit at the intersection of these three fields.  He is currently researching questions regarding relations between truth, justice and love.<br></p><p><br></p>
We’ve stopped caring because of compassion fatiguehttps://www.sun.ac.za/english/Lists/news/DispForm.aspx?ID=7706We’ve stopped caring because of compassion fatigueDion Forster<p>Compassion fatigue during abnormal times such as the COVID-19 pandemic can cause people to care less for others, writes Prof Dion Forster from the Department of Systematic Theology and Ecclesiology in an opinion piece for Mail & Guardian (26 Sept).<br></p><ul><li>Read the article below or click <a href="https://mg.co.za/subscribe-and-support-independent-media/"><strong class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-5-0">here</strong></a><strong class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-5-0"> </strong>for the piece as published.</li></ul><p><strong>​Dion Forster*</strong><br></p><p>In recent weeks I have noticed that even the most cautious members of my family, circle of friends and colleagues, have started to relax their stringent adherence to COVID-19 safety measures. They are arranging social gatherings, travelling across the country, returning to work, shopping with greater freedom, washing their hands less frequently, and even leaving their homes without wearing a mask. </p><p>This is a stark contrast to the vigilance we exercised in the early days of our national lockdown. Remember when you would wash every item you brought back from the grocery store? Or when no more than two persons could travel in a vehicle, and the passenger sat in the back seat? Or, when we <a href="https://www.timeslive.co.za/sunday-times/lifestyle/2020-03-27-a-marathon-during-lockdown-yes-its-possible--you-dont-have-to-leave-your-house/"><strong class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-5-0">ran circles</strong></a> on our balconies and backyards to get our exercise? Being careful seemed so important and necessary! After all, we were protecting ourselves, and others, from being infected with a possibly deadly virus.</p><p>When South Africa went into <a href="https://www.bbc.com/news/av/world-africa-52055161"><strong class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-5-0">lockdown</strong></a><strong class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-5-0"> </strong>on the 26<sup>th</sup> of March, we had only 218 reported cases of coronavirus infection. The first two COVID-19-related deaths were <a href="https://sacoronavirus.co.za/2020/03/27/latest-confirmed-cases-of-covid-19-27th-march-2020/"><strong class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-5-0">reported</strong></a><strong class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-5-0"> </strong>a day later. Understandably, we were shocked and afraid. I am sure that all of us can remember the first time that we heard of a close relative, friend, or co-worker who was infected with the coronavirus? Some of us have also had to suffer the loss of family and friends who succumbed to COVID-19. And of course, some of us are among the nearly 585 000 persons who were infected with the virus and have recovered (approx. 655 000 people were infected).</p><p>The pandemic is not only a health tragedy in South Africa. It is also an economic disaster, putting further strain on an already faltering economy. The media have reported  <a href="https://www.dailymaverick.co.za/article/2020-04-17-the-biggest-lockdown-threat-hunger-hunger-everywhere/"><strong class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-5-0">large scale suffering</strong></a> from hunger, the brutality of increased gender-based violence, the loss of job security for many South Africans, and the failure of our education system that has left teachers vulnerable, and learners even further behind in their schooling. It is likely to take decades to address some of these problems. This will almost certainly be hampered by ongoing corruption in both the government and the private sector.</p><p>Yet, for the majority of South Africans life seems to be 'returning to normal'. We have numbed ourselves to the images of frontline workers dressed in Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) caring for desperately sick persons in hospitals. We hardly seem to notice when the daily news reports that another 100 or so persons have died as a result of COVID-19 overnight, and that the death toll now sits at around 16 000 persons. These are no longer the faces of persons – they are just a number.<br></p><p><strong>Why have we stopped caring?</strong></p><p>The short answer is that we are suffering from a condition known as '<a href="https://www.researchgate.net/publication/328049042_Affect_Empathy_and_Human_Dignity_Considering_Compassion_at_the_Intersection_of_Theology_and_Science"><strong class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-5-0">compassion fatigue</strong></a>'. Compassion fatigue is common among persons who are constantly exposed to unresolvable suffering. It is most often reported in the so-called 'caring professions' (e.g., nurses, doctors, social workers, religious leaders). Research has shown that when a person is constantly confronted by suffering, their response to the suffering becomes <a href="https://doi.org/10.1177/1049909109354096"><strong class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-5-0">less pronounced</strong></a><strong class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-5-0"> </strong>over time. This is the body's way of coping with the pain and trauma of witnessing and experiencing the suffering of others. </p><p>When we see someone suffer, or hear about someone suffering, a part of our brain is activated that causes us to <a href="https://www.researchgate.net/publication/328049042_Affect_Empathy_and_Human_Dignity_Considering_Compassion_at_the_Intersection_of_Theology_and_Science"><strong class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-5-0">recreate the experience</strong></a><strong class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-5-0"> </strong>of the other person in our own imagination. We feel something of their pain. This is a pre-cognate reaction – in other words, it happens in that deep part of our brain that responds to pain without thinking. This capacity is believed to have evolved in all mammal brains (to different degrees) in order to evoke the responses of care and the avoidance of danger. </p><p>When we imagine the suffering of another, we are instinctually motivated to avoid it ourselves. We also tend to shield those that we care for from facing harm. Similarly, when we see someone suffering, we are also instinctually prompted to help them ease their pain. The offering of care and the avoidance of pain have served to preserve life and so they have become 'hard-wired' into the functioning of our brains.<br></p><p>However, my research, and that of others shows, that while our brains are 'wired' for survival and the avoidance of pain and threat, they also <a href="https://journals.lww.com/nursing/Fulltext/2015/07000/Compassion_fatigue__The_cost_of_caring.15.aspx?casa_token=YjKnyScHBx8AAAAA:uQryqaM_I0rBCKSAeviSUrlXfoZiSPSRMNq3TMFVA5DXE4rpISQk2OAC6v412oRb-siXd6IVdpcS2sao243dKiLa9PZ1l6Tb5Q9_"><strong>a</strong><strong class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-5-0"><strong>d</strong>apt to avoid emotional pain</strong></a> and psychological threats. Over time, as we are exposed to ongoing pain and suffering of others, we become less and less sensitive to it. Our emotional reaction to their pain is less severe. We rationalize what we hear and see, moving from the emotional center of the brain to the cognitive and rational functions. Over time we are no longer shocked to hear that 100 persons died in the last 24 hours from a virus that each one of us could be infected with. We are no longer thinking about 15 000 individuals – mothers, fathers, sons, daughters – who have died; we are thinking about a number, a statistic.<br></p><p>Research further shows that compassion fatigue can also occur in groups – such as communities, or nations. For example, a community may become accustomed to certain forms of suffering, or abuse, and normalize them. Gender activists frequently <a href="https://www.dailymaverick.co.za/article/2020-06-18-gender-based-violence-is-south-africas-second-pandemic-says-ramaphosa/"><strong class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-5-0">point out</strong></a><strong class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-5-0"> </strong>the abnormally high rates of rape, femicide and gender-based violence in South Africa. In <a href="https://www-jstor-org.ezproxy.lib.gla.ac.uk/stable/10.5749/jcritethnstud.2.1.0073"><strong class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-5-0">America</strong></a>, for example, the frequent mass shootings, or the killing of black persons by the police, are rationalized and diverted from painful experiences into political debates. </p><p>Compassion fatigue on a personal and a structural level can lead to a loss of perspective. It may cause us to miss-recognize the humanity of others, hindering us from adequately and effectively responding to suffering and pain. Just as we would not want to be treated by an uncaring doctor or nurse, we also should not want to live in a society which does not care about the suffering of its fellow citizens.<br></p><p>In his 1947 novel <a href="https://books.google.co.za/books?id=3qCOmB8EYigC&dq=editions:G--JUyAmT1oC&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjp54HkvO3rAhWNN8AKHWnDD3sQ6AEwBXoECAAQAg"><em class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-5-0"><strong>The plague</strong></em></a>, Albert Camus tells the story of the arrival of a plague in the Algerian city of Oran. After facing great tragedy and hardship, the citizens of Oran start to normalize their lives. Camus, however, uses his novel to illustrate how <a href="https://www.counterpointknowledge.org/when-a-pandemic-makes-the-impossible-possible/"><strong class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-5-0">abnormal</strong></a><strong class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-5-0"> </strong>some aspects of their normal lives actually are.</p><p>It is important that we recognize when compassion fatigue starts to set in. We must guard against it in our closest relationships, and also name it when we see it in our communities and social systems. To show compassion requires an ongoing choice to recognize the humanity of those who suffer. It requires the courage to face pain and discomfort. To create a more compassionate society, we will have to face the reality of our shared humanity, our shared frailty, and our need for one another. We will have to avoid the instinct to escape or simply ignore what causes pain and suffering. In these difficult times, we could all do with a little more care, a more humane and compassionate society.   <br></p><p><em>*Prof </em><em>Dion A. Forster is an Associate Professor in Systematic Theology and Ethics and the Chair of the Department of Systematic Theology and Ecclesiology at Stellenbosch</em> <em>University (SU). He also serves as the director of the Beyers Naudé Centre for Public Theology at SU. </em><br></p><p><br></p>
Memorial service for Prof Plaatjies-Van Huffel on 29 Mayhttps://www.sun.ac.za/english/Lists/news/DispForm.aspx?ID=7388Memorial service for Prof Plaatjies-Van Huffel on 29 MayMarita Snyman<p>​<a href="/english/PublishingImages/Lists/dualnews/My%20Items%20View/Memorial%20service%20MAP.jpg"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/15/images/icjpg.gif" alt="" />Memorial service MAP.jpg</a><br></p>
Responses to the Naming of Jesus as a Victim of Sexual Violence, a colloquium led by Professor David Tombshttps://www.sun.ac.za/english/Lists/news/DispForm.aspx?ID=6511Responses to the Naming of Jesus as a Victim of Sexual Violence, a colloquium led by Professor David TombsMarita Snyman<p>​<strong style="text-align:center;">COLLOQUIUM: </strong><strong style="text-align:center;">Responses to the Naming of Jesus as a </strong><strong style="text-align:center;">Victim of Sexual Violence</strong></p><p><strong style="text-align:center;"></strong><span style="text-align:center;">​P</span><span style="text-align:center;">rofessor Tombs' paper was followed by responses from </span><strong style="text-align:center;">Shantelle Weber</strong><span style="text-align:center;">, Senior lecturer: Practical Theology and Missiology, </span><strong style="text-align:center;">Ashwin Thyssen</strong><span style="text-align:center;">, senior student leader and activist and </span><strong style="text-align:center;">Jeremy Punt</strong><span style="text-align:center;">, Professor: Old and New Testament, </span><span style="text-align:center;">all Faculty of Theology, Stellenbosch University.</span></p><p style="text-align:justify;"><strong></strong><strong>Professor David Tombs is the Howard Paterson Chair of Theology and Public Issues, at the University of Otago, Aotearoa New Zealand. He has a longstanding interest in contextual and liberation theologies and is author of </strong><strong><em>Latin American Liberation Theology </em></strong><strong>(Brill, 2002). His research is on religion and violence, and his current writing focusses on crucifixion. </strong></p><p>Pictured are Dion Forster, Shantelle Weber, David Tombs, Ashwin Thyssen and Jeremy Punt<br></p>
Beyers Naudé birthday celebrated with a message from Prof Nico Koopmanhttps://www.sun.ac.za/english/Lists/news/DispForm.aspx?ID=7333Beyers Naudé birthday celebrated with a message from Prof Nico KoopmanMarita Snyman<p>​Each year on the 10th of May the Beyers Naudé Centre for Public Theology at Stellenbosch University gathers to remember the person and work of Dr. Beyers Naudé. We normally do this in person and invite a speaker to present a lecture on an aspect of Dr. Naudé's legacy and witness. However, since we are currently in the middle of the Covid-19 lockdown in South Africa we cannot meet in person. </p><p>So, we asked Prof Nico Koopman, the Chair of the Management Committee of the Beyers Naudé Centre for Public Theology to share a message with us on this 105th Anniversary of the Birth of Beyers Naudé.<br></p><div class="ms-rtestate-read ms-rte-embedcode ms-rte-embedil ms-rtestate-notify"><iframe width="875" height="492" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/HmVyn4n-9eQ" frameborder="0"></iframe> </div><p><br><br></p>
Dietrich Bonhoeffer for todayhttps://www.sun.ac.za/english/Lists/news/DispForm.aspx?ID=4234Dietrich Bonhoeffer for todayMarita Snyman<p>For three years now, the Bonhoeffer Consultation has brought together scholars, pastors, and students for a close reading and discussion of a portion of Bonhoeffer's writings. This year's Consultation focused on Bonhoeffer's dissertation, <em>Sanctorum Communio, </em>which he completed at age 21. In it, Bonhoeffer offers a description of the church as a social entity in which separate persons are brought into community by encountering difference in one another. Participants spent each morning reading through <em>Sanctorum Communio</em> and discussing its implications for theology, sociology, politics, personhood, and a fresh vision for the church's role in a diverse and reconciling South Africa. The discussions were supplemented by public lectures, including an address by the renowned theologian and Bonhoeffer scholar, Prof. John de Gruchy, on Bonhoeffer's prophetic example for a global Kairos theology.</p><p>Photo: Prof Robert Vosloo, Director of the Bonhoeffer Unit at the Beyers Naudé Centre with Prof John de Gruchy<br></p>
Celebrating Allan Boesak’s 70th birthdayhttps://www.sun.ac.za/english/Lists/news/DispForm.aspx?ID=3919Celebrating Allan Boesak’s 70th birthdayMarita Snyman<p>​​Before the event, attendees received the introduction and first chapter of Prof Boesak's latest book, <em>Kairos, Crisis, and Global Apartheid: The Challenge to Prophetic Resistance. Palgrave Macmillan.</em> </p><p>The reference to "Kairos" in the title of the book reminds of the 1985 Kairos Document which responded theologically to the crisis experienced in apartheid South Africa.  The book argues that thirty years later Christians and faith communities are facing a more global sort of apartheid, and apartheid that is – as the book states – "caused and characterized by growing social and economic inequalities, environmental devastation, and degradation of human dignity on a global scale." The book makes a powerful claim for the embodiment of a theology of prophetic resistance.</p><p>At the event, Prof Robert Vosloo put some questions about the book to Prof Boesak, to which he responded in his typical clear, challenging and inspiring manner.  He elaborated on terms such as "kairos consciousness" and "global apartheid," and also pointed to the influence of Calvin, Bonhoeffer, Beyers Naudé, liberation theology and black theology on the ideas put forward in the book. One of the questions addressed the challenges posed by the conversations on decolonization and the various #mustFall movements. The discussion also turned to the situation in the United States and the candidacy of Donald Trump. Prof Boesak responded by emphasizing the need for the church to stand with God for justice.</p><p>The event was well-attended and those present enjoyed the discussion which served as a challenge to embody the gospel in line with the legacy of people like Beyers Naudé. The event concluded with student leaders from the faculty congratulating Prof Boesak on his 70<sup>th</sup> birthday.​</p>
Transgression and Transformation conferencehttps://www.sun.ac.za/english/Lists/news/DispForm.aspx?ID=6444Transgression and Transformation conferenceMarita Snyman<h2>​​​​​Transgression and transformation: the role of feminist, postcolonial and queer biblical interpretation in fostering communities of justice​<br></h2><h2><span lang="EN-ZA"><br></span></h2><p><span lang="EN-ZA" style="line-height:107%;font-family:"times new roman",serif;font-size:11pt;">On March 13-15, 2019, the Gender Unit, Beyers Naudé Centre for Public Theology, in collaboration with the Center for Theology, Women, and Gender of Princeton Theological Seminary hosted a successful Transgression and Transformation Conference.</span></p><p><span lang="EN-ZA" style="line-height:107%;font-family:"times new roman",serif;font-size:11pt;"></span><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:"times new roman",serif;font-size:11pt;">Keynote speakers to this conference included Prof Jacqueline Lapsley, Princeton Theological Seminary; Prof Christl Maier, </span><span lang="EN-ZA" style="line-height:107%;font-family:"times new roman",serif;font-size:11pt;">Philipps University Marburg, Germany; Prof </span><span style="line-height:107%;font-family:"times new roman",serif;font-size:11pt;">Dora Mbuwayesango, Hood Theological Seminary; Prof Linda Thomas, Lutheran School of Theology, Chicago, IL; Prof Charlene van der Walt, University</span><span lang="EN-ZA" style="line-height:107%;font-family:"times new roman",serif;font-size:11pt;"> of KwaZulu-Natal. </span></p><p><span lang="EN-ZA" style="line-height:107%;font-family:"times new roman",serif;font-size:11pt;">This conference formed part of the Core Module of the MTh Gender and Health as well as the MDIV class and were attended by between 60-70 participants.</span><br></p>
SA not yet healed from frozen traumahttps://www.sun.ac.za/english/Lists/news/DispForm.aspx?ID=6486SA not yet healed from frozen traumaCorporate Communication / Korporatiewe Kommunikasie [Alec Basson]<p>​​We cannot afford to continue to ignore the unfinished business of healing our nation and dealing with the frozen trauma.<br></p><p>This was one of the viewpoints of Prof Christo Thesnaar from the Department of Practical Theology and Missiology in the Faculty of Theology at Stellenbosch University (SU) on Wednesday (12 Jun 2019). He delivered his inaugural lecture on the topic <em>Divine discomfort: A relational encounter with multi-generational and multi-layered trauma</em>.<br></p><p>Thesnaar said South Africa is reaping the fruits of frozen and multi-generational and multi-layered trauma that has started to erupt in the country. He added that we have failed to deal with the trauma of the past.<br></p><p>“Domestic and intimate partner violence, violent crime, substance dependency, xenophobia, etc., all bear witness to a frozen trauma that has started to erupt. Persistent poverty, inequality and unemployment are clear indicators that we have neglected to attend to our frozen trauma."<img class="ms-rtePosition-2" alt="Teologie intree-8.jpg" src="/english/PublishingImages/Lists/dualnews/My%20Items%20View/Teologie%20intree-8.jpg" style="margin:5px;width:380px;" /><br></p><p>“In the lead-up to the 25th anniversary of the political settlement in South Africa, we have seen an increase in anger, violence and vengeance on all levels of our society regarding basic service delivery, poverty, education, economic freedom, and so forth.</p><p>“It is safe to say that for the most part of the 25 years, the state of the trauma in our country has been mainly suppressed by the transition process, the first democratic election, the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) process and the many political promises."<br></p><p>According to Thesnaar, the lack of implementation of the TRC recommendations by government, civil society and religious groupings and the failure to facilitate the past trauma have contributed to the eruption of the trauma. <br></p><p>“The failure to address socio-economic settlement in terms of economic justice, land reform, housing and employment, to name a few, has specifically contributed to the frozen trauma and the subsequent eruption thereof."<br></p><p>Thesnaar added that even though we went through a transformation (political change and new Constitution) and healing process (facilitated by the TRC) 25 years ago, there was no guarantee that it would be sufficient to deal with the decades of frozen trauma.<br></p><p>He said the lack of urgency by all role players to transform South Africa has increased divisions between rich and poor, different race groups, and leadership and the people.<br></p><p>“Poverty in the midst of opulence is inclined to wound a person, family, community and even a nation more than one can imagine. In this regard, unequal societies such as ours tend to generate more rage and outrage that turn inwards as well as to those intimate to the one that is traumatised."<br></p><p>Thesnaar said as a society we will need to embrace the values of <em>ubuntu</em> and mutual recognition to deal with the multi-generational and multi-layered trauma.</p><ul><li><strong>Main photo</strong>: A squatter camp in South Africa. (Credit: Wikimedia) </li><li><strong>Photo 1</strong>: Profs Reggie Nel, Dean of SU's Faculty of Theology, Christo Thesnaar and Stan du Plessis, SU's Chief Operating Officer at the inaugural lecture. <strong>Photographer</strong>: Anton Jordaan</li></ul><p><br> </p><br><br><br><br>