Animal TB
Welcome to Stellenbosch University

Division of Molecular Biology & Human Genetics

Animal TB Research Group


  1. Smith, K., L. Kleynhans, C. Snyders, N. Bernitz, D. Cooper, P. van Helden, R.M. Warren, M.A. Miller, and W.J. Goosen. 2021. Use of the MILLIPLEX® bovine cytokine/chemokine multiplex assay to identify Mycobacterium bovis-infection biomarkers in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer). Vet. Immun. Immunopath. 231: 110152.
  2. Meiring, C., R. Higgitt, A. Dippenaar, E. Roos, P. Buss, J. Hewlett, D. Cooper, P. Rogers, L.-M. de Klerk-Lorist, L. van Schalkwyk, G. Hausler, P. van Helden, M. Moller, R. Warren, and M. Miller. 2021. Characterizing epidemiological and genotypic features of Mycobacterium bovis infection in wild dogs (Lycaon pictus). Transb. Emerg. Dis.
  3. Sridhara, A.A., A. Johnathan-Lee, R. Elahi, M.A. Risalde, C. Gortazar, W.R. Waters, K.P. Lyashchenko, and M.A. Miller. 2021. Strong antibody responses to Mycobacterium bovis infection in domestic pigs and potential for reliable serodiagnostics. Vet. Immun. Immunopath. 231:110161.
  4. Smith, K., N. Bernitz, S. Goldswain, D.V. Cooper, R.M. Warren, W.J. Goosen, and M.A. Miller. 2021. Optimized interferon-gamma release assays for detection of Mycobacterium bovis infection in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer). Vet. Immunol. Immunopath. 231:119163.
  5. Miller, M.A., T.J. Kerr, C.R. de Waal, W.J. Goosen, E.M. Streicher, G. Hausler, L. Rossouw, T. Manamela, L. van Schalkwyk, L. Kleynhans, R. Warren, P. van Helden, and P.E. Buss. 2021. Mycobacterium bovis infection in free-ranging African elephants. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 27(3):990-992.
  6. Didkowska, A., M. Krajewska-Wędzina, W. Bielecki, S. Brzezińska, E. Augustynowicz-Kopeć, W. Olech, K. Anusz, A.A. Sridhara, A. Johnathan-Lee, R. Elahi, M.A. Miller, W.R. Waters, and K.P. Lyashchenko. 2021. Antibody responses in European bison (Bison bonasus) naturally infected with Mycobacterium caprae. Vet. Microbiol. 253:108952.
  7. Chileshe, J., T.J. Kerr, C. Kinnear, P.E. Buss, P.D. van Helden, R.M. Warren, M.A. Miller, and S.D.C. Parsons. 2021. Cytokine biomarker discovery in the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum). Vet. Immunol. Immunopath. 232:110168.
  8. Smith, K., N. Bernitz, D. Cooper, T.J. Kerr, C.R. de Waal, C. Clarke, S. Goldswain, W. McCall, A. McCall, D.Cooke, E. Rambert, L. Kleynhans, R.M. Warren, P. van Helden, S.D.C. Parsons, W.J. Goosen, and M.A. Miller. 2021. Optimisation of the tuberculin skin test for detection of Mycobacterium bovis in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer). Prev. Vet. Med. 188:105254.
  9. Kerr, T.J., W.J. Goosen, R. Gumbo, L.-M. de Klerk-Lorist, O. Pretorius, P.E. Buss, L. Kleynhans, K.P. Lyashchenko, R.M. Warren, P.D. van Helden, and M.A. Miller. 2021. Diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis infection in free-ranging common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius). Transb. Emerg. Dis.
  10. Neiffer, D., J. Hewlett, P. Buss, L. Rossouw, G. Hausler, L.-M. de Klerk-Lorist, E. Roos, F. Olea-Popelka, B. Lubisi, L. Heath, and M. Miller. 2021 Antibody prevalence to African swine fever, Mycobacterium bovis, Foot-and-Mouth Disease virus, Rift Valley Fever virus, influenza A virus, and Brucella and Leptospira spp. in free-ranging warthog (Phacochoerus africana) populations in South Africa. J. Wildl. Dis. 57(1):60-70.
  11. Radcliffe, R.W., Jago, M., Morkel, P.V., Morkel, E., du Preez, P., Beytell, P., Kotting, B., du Preez, J.H., Miller, M.A., Felippe, J. and Parry, S.A., 2021. The pulmonary and metabolic effects of suspension by the feet compared with lateral recumbency in immobilized black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis) captured by aerial darting. J.Wildl. Dis. 57(2):357-367.
  12. Bernitz, N., T.J. Kerr, W.J. Goosen, J. Chileshe, R.L. Higgitt, E.O. Roos, C. Meiring, R. Gumbo, C. de Waal, C. Clarke, K. Smith, S. Goldswain, T.T. Sylvester, L. Kleynhans, A. Dippenaar, P.E. Buss, D.V. Cooper, K.P. Lyashchenko, R.M. Warren, P.D. van Helden, S.D.C. Parsons, and M.A. Miller. 2021. Review of diagnostic tests for detection of Mycobacterium bovis infection in South African wildlife. Front. Vet. Sci. 8:588697.
  13. de Waal, C.R., L. Kleynhans, S. Parsons, W.J. Goosen, G. Hausler, P.E. Buss, R.M. Warren, P.D. van Helden, J.A. Landolfi, M.A. Miller, and T.J. Kerr. 2021. Development of a cytokine gene expression assay for the relative quantification of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) cell-mediated immune responses. Cytokine 141:155453.
  14. Steyrer, C., M. Miller, J. Hewlett, P. Buss, and E.H. Hooijberg. 2021. Reference intervals for hematology and clinical chemistry for the African elephant (Loxodonta africana). Frontiers Vet. Sci. 8:599387.
  15. Smith, K., L. Kleynhans, R.M. Warren, W.J. Goosen, and M.A. Miller. 2021. Cell-mediated immunological biomarkers and their diagnostic application in livestock and wildlife infected with Mycobacterium bovis. Frontiers Immunol. 12:639605.
  16. Clarke, C., K. Smith, S.J. Goldswain, C. Helm, D.V. Cooper, T.J. Kerr, L. Kleynhans, P.D. van Helden, R.M. Warren, M.A. Miller, and W.J. Goosen. 2021. Novel Molecular Transport Medium used in combination with Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra provides rapid detection of Mycobacterium bovis in African buffaloes. Sci. Reports. 11(1):1-6.
  17. Donnelly, K.A., M.A. Miller, D. Grobler, P. Buss, C. van Niekerk, L. Kleynhans-Cornelissen, T. Kerr, and S.B. Citino. 2021. Serological evidence of Coxiella burnetti infection in the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) in South Africa. J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 52(2);573-579.
  18. Meiring, C., R. Higgitt, W.J. Goosen, L. van Schalkwyk, L.-M. de Klerk-Lorist, P. Buss, P.D. van Helden, S.D.C. Parsons, M. Moller, and M. Miller. 2021. Shedding of Mycobacterium bovis in respiration secretions of free ranging wild dogs (Lycaon pictus): Implications for intraspecies transmission. Trans. Emerg. Dis. 2021; 68:2581–2588.
  19. Lyashchenko, K.P., A. Sikar-Gang, A.A. Sridhara, A. Johnathan-Lee, R. Elahi, R. Greenwald, P. Lambotte, J. Esfandiari, E.O. Roos, T.J. Kerr, M.A.Miller, T.C. Thacker, M.V. Palmer, and W.R. Waters. 2021. Use of blood matrices and alternative biological fluids for antibody detection in animal tuberculosis. Vet. Immun. Immunopath. 239:110303.
  20. Goosen, W., M.H. Moseley, T.J. Kerr, A. Potts, and M. Miller. 2021. The seroepidemiology of a neglected zoonotic and livestock pathogen in free-ranging bovids: Leptospirosis in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer). Pathogens 10:1072.
  21. Grace, J.F., M.A. Miller, J.P. Raath, L.L. Laubscher, P.E. Buss, and G.E. Zeiler. 2021. Immobilization of African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) using etorphine-midazolam compared with etorphine-azaperone. Vet. Anaesth. Analg. 48:734-744.
  22. Goosen, W.J., Kleynhans, L., Kerr, T.J., van Helden, P.D., Buss, P., Warren, R.M. and Miller, M.A., 2021. Improved detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. bovis in African wildlife samples using cationic peptide decontamination and mycobacterial culture supplementation. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest.
  23.  Buss, P., M. Miller, A. Fuller, A. Haw, E. Thulson, F. Olea-Popelka, and L. Meyer. 2021. Effect of azaperone on induction times in etorphine-immobilized white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum). J. Wildl. Dis.
  24. Patterson, S.J., Clarke, C., Clutton-Brock, T.H. Miller, M. Parsons, S.D.C., Pfeiffer, D.U, Vergne, T., and Drewe, J.A. 2021. Combining analytical approaches and multiple sources of information to improve interpretation of diagnostic test results for tuberculosis in wild meerkats. Animals 2021, 11(12):3453.
  25. Gumbo, R., Crockett, E., Goosen, W.J., Warren, R.M., van Helden, P.D., Miller, M.A., and Kerr, T.J. 2021. Cytokine-release assay for the detection of Mycobacterium bovis infection in cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus). J. Zoo Wildl. Med.