Integrated Pest Management Initiative
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Fact Sheets



African bollworm is a highly polyphagous and destructive pest that attacks over 180 plant species, including most of the cultivated crops in South Africa. In South Africa, it is most destructive to cotton and maize, but sporadic outbreaks in grapevines, deciduous fruit, and citrus can be economically damaging. The larvae are the harmful stage as they target reproductive parts of the plant and bore unsightly holes which deem fruit unmarketable or severely reduce the vigour and yield.
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Carob moth is an extremely polyphagous and versatile pest that easily adapts its life history and morphology to fit a large variety of hosts. In South Africa, it is a known pest of citrus (especially grapefruit), pomegranates, macadamia, and pecans. The pest probably originates from the Middle East but is widespread throughout southern Africa.
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The citrus flower moth is a tiny moth that is found throughout many areas of the world and attacks most types of citrus. The larvae are the damaging stage, feeding on flowers, blossoms, and buds, and shallowly boring into the young fruit. In South Africa, citrus flower moth is most abundant on lemon and can cause gumming and brown necrotic lesions on young and mature fruit. Monitoring of citrus blossoms should be conducted for larvae or damage in the springtime either visually or with a pheromone trap.
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Grapevine bud mite is an important economic pest of grapevines in South Africa as well as in Europe, Russia, and Australia. These mites are microscopic worm-like pests that live and feed within dormant grapevine buds. It has an egg stage, two nymphal instars, and male and female adults, all of which may be found in clusters of hundreds of individuals within dormant buds. Three strains occur: The bud strain causes stunted growth or even bud death; the erineum or blistering strain causes leaf galls, and the leaf-curling strain causes leaves to deform and curl.
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Grapevine mealybug is a key economic pest of table and wine grapevines in South Africa as it vectors the grapevine leafroll virus. Mealybugs excrete honeydew which can lead to grape bunches becoming unmarketable. Mealybug juveniles and adult females suck sap from all parts of the grapevine plant. They exist in mutualism with native ants, which protect the mealybugs from predators while feeding on the honeydew.
Grapevine phylloxera is an aphid-like insect that originated in North America but now occurs throughout almost all grape growing regions of the world. It is the worst economic pest of grapevine in the world. Damage is caused to vine roots by inserting sucking mouthparts which causes galls to form and root systems to weaken over time. Sexual and asexual reproduction can occur, and galls can be formed on roots and leaves. In SA the root-gall form is almost exclusively present, except in limited areas.
False codling moth (FCM) is native to South Africa. It is a polyphagous pest of many important South African export crops. The most important cultivated hosts include citrus, stone fruit, avocadoes, pomegranates, persimmons, macadamias, and hot peppers. Other crops include Grapes, litchis, cotton, and maize.
The Mediterranean fruit fly is one of the most destructive fruit pests in the world. It is native to sub-Saharan Africa and has established in most regions of the world, except East Asia and mainland USA who regulate this pest in the strictest terms in order to deter colonization and establishment. Medfly is extremely polyphagous, with over 260 known host plants which include almost all known crops grown in South Africa.
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Trimen's false tiger moth is a poorly understood moth which has recently been confirmed as a pest of grapevines in South Africa. It is native and widespread in southern Africa. These moths are predominantly a pest in grape-growing regions along the Orange River in the Northern Cape, in Brits, North West Province, Groblersdal, and Limpopo Province.

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