Replacement of so-called “sentient" animals wherever possible, with “non-sentient" research models or systems in order to eliminate the use of animals that can experience unpleasant sensations.
Reduction of the number of animals in experiments by designing strategies that facilitate the use of the smallest number that will allow valid information to be obtained from the study.
Refinement of animal sourcing, animal care practices and experimental procedures to eliminate physical and psychological distress within the limitations imposed by the objectives of the research.
Freedom from hunger and thirst
Freedom from pain, injury and disease
Freedom from distress
Freedom from discomfort
Freedom to express behaviours that promote well-being