Immunology Research Group
Welcome to Stellenbosch University

​Stellenbosch University Immunology Research Group





1. Jones C E, Hesseling A C, Tena-Coki N G, Scriba T J, Chegou N N, Kidd M, Wilkinson R J and Kampmann B. The impact of HIV exposure and maternal Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection on infant immune responses to bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination. AIDS (2015) 29:155-165.

2. Visser D H, Solomons R S, Ronacher K, van Well G T, Heymans M W, Walzl G, Chegou N N, Schoeman J F and van Furth A M. Host immune response to tuberculous meningitis. Clin. Infect. Dis. (2015) 60:177-187.

3. Mandalakas A M,  Kirchner H L, Walzl G, R P, Schaaf H S, Cotton M F, Grewal H M S, and Hesseling A C. Optimizing the Detection of Recent Tuberculosis Infection in Children in a High TB-HIV Burden Setting. Am J Respir Crit Care Med (2015) 191(7):820-30.

4. Fang Z, van der Merwe R G, Warren R M, Schubert W-D, Gey van Pittius N C. Assessing the progress of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv structural genomics. Tuberculosis (2015) 95(2):131–6.

5. Fang Z, Sampson S L, Warren R M, Gey van Pittius N C, Newton-Foot M. Iron acquisition strategies in mycobacteria. Tuberculosis (2015) 95(2):123–30.

6. Axelsson-Robertson R, Rao M, Loxton AG, Walzl G, Bates M, Zumla A, Maeurer M. Frequency of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific CD8+ T-cells in the course of anti-tuberculosis treatment. Int J Infect Dis (2015) 32:23-9.

7. Ronacher K, Joosten S, van Crevel R, Dockrell, H, Walzl G, Ottenhoff T. Acquired immunodeficiencies and tuberculosis: Focus on HIV/AIDS and Diabetes Mellitus. Immunological Reviews (2015) 264(1):121-37.

8. Hesseling AC, Jaspan H B, Black GF, Nene N, Walzl G. Immunogenicity of BCG in HIV-exposed and non-exposed infants following routine birth or delayed vaccination. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis (2015) 19(4):454-62.

9. Masson L, Passmore J A, Liebenberg L J, Werner L, Baxter C, Arnold K B, Williamson C, Little F, Mansoor L E, Naranbhai V, Lauffenburger D A, Ronacher K, Walzl G, Garrett N J, Williams B L, Couto-Rodriguez M, Hornig M, Lipkin W I, Grobler A, Karim Q A, Karim S S. Genital Inflammation and the Risk of HIV Acquisition in Women. Clin Infect Dis (2015) 61(2):260-9.

10. Van Rensburg I C, Loxton A G. Transcriptomics: the key to biomarker discovery during tuberculosis? Biomark Med (2015) 9(5):483-95.

11. Masson L, Salkinder A L, Olivier A J, McKinnon L R, Gamieldien H, Mlisana K, Scriba T J, Lewis D A, Little F, Jaspan H B, Ronacher K, Denny L, Abdool Karim S S, Passmore J S. Relationship between female genital tract infections, mucosal interleukin-17 production and local T helper type 17 cells. Immunology (2015). [In press]

12. Corstjens P L, Tjon Kon Fat E M, de Dood C J, van der Ploeg-van Schip J J, Franken K L, Chegou N N, Sutherland J S, Howe R, Mihret A, Kassa D, van der Vyver M, Sheehama J, Simukonda F, Mayanja-Kizza H, Ottenhoff T H, Walzl G, Geluk A; AE-TBC consortium. Multi-center evaluation of a user-friendly lateral flow assay to determine IP-10 and CCL4 levels in blood of TB and non-TB cases in Africa. Clin Biochem (2015). [In press]

13. Baumann R, Kaempfer S, Chegou N N, Oehlmann W, Spallek R, Loxton A G, van HeldenP D, Black G F, Singh M, Walzl G. A subgroup of latently Mycobacterium tuberculosis infected individuals is characterized by consistently elevated IgA responses to several Mycobacterial antigens. Mediators Inflamm (2015). [In press]

14.Esterhuyse MM, Weiner J 3rd, Caron E, Loxton AG, Iannaccone M, Wagman C, Saikali P, Stanley K, Wolski WE, Mollenkopf HJ, Schick M, Aebersold R, Linhart H, Walzl G, Kaufmann SH. Epigenetics and proteomics join transcriptomics in the quest for tuberculosis biomarkers. MBio (2015) 6(5).

15. Cliff J M, Cho J E, Lee J S, Ronacher K, King E C, van Helden P, Walzl G, Dockrell, H M. Excessive cytolytic responses predict tuberculosis relapse after apparently successful treatment. J Infect Dis. 2015.  [In press]

16. Nicol M P, Gnanashanmugam D, Browning R, Click E S, Cuevas L E, Detjen A, Graham S M, Levin M, Makhene M, Nahid P, Perez-Velez C M, Reither K, Song R, Spiegel H M, Worrell C, Zar H J, Walzl G. A blueprint to address research gaps in the development of biomarkers for pediatric tuberculosis. Clin Infect Dis 2015 61(3):164-72.

17. Kriel M, Lotz J W, Kidd M, Walzl G. Evaluation of a radiological severity score to predict treatment outcome in adults with pulmonary tuberculosis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2015 19(11):1354-60.

18. Du Plessis WJ, Walzl G, Loxton AG. B cells as multi-functional players during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and disease. Tuberculosis. (2015)  15:1-8.


1. Baumann R, Kaempfer S, Chegou N N, Oehlmann W, Loxton A G, Kaufmann S H E, van Helden P D, Black G F, Singh M and Walzl G. Serologic diagnosis of tuberculosis by combining Ig classes against selected mycobacterial targets. J. Infect. (2014) 69:581-589.

2. Salie M, van der Merwe L, Möller M, Daya M, van der Spuy G D, van Helden P D, Martin M P, Gao X-J, Warren R M, Carrington M and Hoal E G. Associations between human leukocyte antigen class I variants and the Mycobacterium tuberculosis subtypes causing disease. J. Infect. Dis. (2014) 209:216-223.

3. Olivier A J, Masson L, Ronacher K, Walzl G, Coetzee D, Lewis D A, Williamson A-L, Passmore J-A S and Burgers W A. Distinct Cytokine Patterns in Semen Influence Local HIV Shedding and HIV Target Cell Activation. J. Infect. Dis. (2014) 209:1174-1184.

4. Chegou N N, Heyckendorf J, Walzl G, Lange C and Ruhwald M. Beyond the IFN-γ horizon: biomarkers for immunodiagnosis of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Eur. Respir. J. (2014) 43:1472-1486.

5. Nel H J, du Plessis N, Kleynhans L, Loxton A G, van Helden P D and Walzl G. Mycobacterium bovis BCG infection severely delays Trichuris muris expulsion and co-infection suppresses immune responsiveness to both pathogens. BMC Microbiol. (2014) 14:9.

6. Essone P N, Chegou N N, Loxton A G, Stanley K, Kriel M, van der Spuy G, Franken K L, Ottenhoff T H and Walzl G. Host cytokine responses induced after overnight stimulation with novel M. tuberculosis infection phase-dependent antigens show promise as diagnostic candidates for TB disease. PLoS ONE (2014) 9:e102584.

7. Essone P N, Kalsdorf B, Chegou N N, Loxton A G, Kriel M, Preyer R, Ernst M, Walzl G and Lange C. Bifunctional T-cell-derived cytokines for the diagnosis of tuberculosis and treatment monitoring. Respiration (2014) 88:251-261.

8. Katengua-Thamahane E, Marnewick J L, Ajuwon O R, Chegou N N, Szűcs G, Ferdinandy Pt, Csont T, Csonka C and Van Rooyen J. The combination of red palm oil and rooibos show anti-inflammatory effects in rats. J Inflamm (Lond) (2014) 11:41.

9. Kaufmann S H, Cotton M F, Eisele B, Gengenbacher M, Grode L, Hesseling A C and Walzl G. The BCG replacement vaccine VPM1002: from drawing board to clinical trial. Expert Rev Vaccines (2014) 13:619-630.

10. Marx F M, Dunbar R, Enarson D A, Williams B G, Warren R M, van der Spuy G D, van Helden P D and Beyers N. The temporal dynamics of relapse and reinfection tuberculosis after successful treatment: a retrospective cohort study. Clin. Infect. Dis. (2014) 58:1676-1683.

11. Masson L, Mlisana K, Little F, Werner L, Mkhize N N, Ronacher K, Gamieldien H, Williamson C, Mckinnon L R, Walzl G, Abdool Karim Q, Abdool Karim S S and Passmore J-A S. Defining genital tract cytokine signatures of sexually transmitted infections and bacterial vaginosis in women at high risk of HIV infection: a cross-sectional study. Sex Transm Infect (2014) 90:580-587.

12. Mihret A, Loxton A G, Bekele Y, Kaufmann S H E, Kidd M, Haks M C, Ottenhoff T H M, Aseffa A, Howe R and Walzl G. Combination of gene expression patterns in whole blood discriminate between tuberculosis infection states. BMC Infect. Dis. (2014) 14:257.

13. Mkhize-Kwitshana Z L, Mabaso M L and Walzl G. Proliferative capacity and cytokine production by cells of HIV-infected and uninfected adults with different helminth infection phenotypes in South Africa. BMC Infect. Dis. (2014) 14:499. 

14. Ota M O C, Mendy J F, Donkor S, Togun T, Daramy M, Gomez M P, Chegou N N, Sillah A K, Owolabi O, Kampmann B, Walzl G and Sutherland J S. Rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis using ex vivo host biomarkers in sputum. Eur. Respir. J. (2014) 44:254-257.

15. Streicher E M, Maharaj K, York T, Van Heerden C, Barnard M, Diacon A, Mendel C M, Bosman M E, Hepple J A, Pym A S, Warren R M and van Helden P D. Rapid sequencing of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis pncA gene for detection of pyrazinamide susceptibility. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2014) 52:4056-4057.

16. Sutherland J S, Loxton A G, Haks M C, Kassa D, Ambrose L, Lee J-S, Ran L, van Baarle D, Maertzdorf J, Howe R, Mayanja-Kizza H, Boom W H, Thiel B A, Crampin A C, Hanekom W, Ota M O C, Dockrell H, Walzl G, Kaufmann S H E, Ottenhoff T H M and GCGH Biomarkers for TB consortium . Differential gene expression of activating Fcγ receptor classifies active tuberculosis regardless of human immunodeficiency virus status or ethnicity. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. (2014) 20:O230-238.



1. du Plessis N, Kleynhans L, Thiart L, van Helden P D, Brombacher F, Horsnell W G C and Walzl G. Acute helminth infection enhances early macrophage mediated control of mycobacterial infection. Mucosal Immunol (2013) 6:931-941.

2. Kleynhans La, Plessis N D, Allie N, Jacobs M, Kidd M, Helden P D v, Walzl G and Ronacher K. The Contraceptive Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate Impairs Mycobacterial Control and Inhibits Cytokine Secretion in Mice Infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Infect. Immun. (2013) 81:1234-1244.

3. Cobat A, Hoal E G, Gallant C J, Simkin L, Black G F, Stanley K, Jaïs J-P, Yu T-H, Boland-Auge A, Grange G, Delacourt C, Helden P v, Casanova J-L, Abel L, Alcaïs A and Schurr E. Identification of a Major Locus, TNF1, That Controls BCG-Triggered Tumor Necrosis Factor Production by Leukocytes in an Area Hyperendemic for Tuberculosis. Clin Infect Dis. (2013) 57:963-970.

4. Cliff J M, Lee J-S, Constantinou N, Cho J-E, Clark T G, Ronacher K, King E C, Lukey P T, Duncan K, Helden P D V, Walzl G and Dockrell H M. Distinct Phases of Blood Gene Expression Pattern Through Tuberculosis Treatment Reflect Modulation of the Humoral Immune Response. J Infect Dis. (2013) 207:18-29.

5. Hemmings S MJ, Martin L I, Klopper M, van der Merwe L, Aitken L, de Wit E, Black G F, Hoal E G, Walzl G and Seedat S. BDNF Val66Met and DRD2 Taq1A polymorphisms interact to influence PTSD symptom severity: A preliminary investigation in a South African population. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry (2013) 40:273-280.

6. Baumann R, Kaempfer S, Chegou N N, Nene N F, Veenstra H, Spallek R, Bolliger C T, Lukey P T, van Helden P D, Singh M and Walzl G. Serodiagnostic markers for the prediction of the outcome of intensive phase tuberculosis therapy. Tuberculosis (2013) 93:239-245.

7. Mihret A, Bekele Y, Bobosha K, Kidd M, Aseffa A, Howe R and Walzl G. Plasma cytokines and chemokines differentiate between active disease and non-active tuberculosis infection. Journal of Infection (2013) 66:357-365.

8. Chegou N N, Detjen A K, Thiart L, Walters E, Mandalakas A M, Hesseling A C and Walzl G. Utility of Host Markers Detected in Quantiferon Supernatants for the Diagnosis of Tuberculosis in Children in a High-Burden Setting. PLoS ONE (2013) 8:e64226.

9. Axelsson-Robertson R, Loxton A G, Walzl G, Ehlers M M, Kock M M, Zumla A and Maeurer M. A broad profile of co-dominant epitopes shapes the peripheral Mycobacterium tuberculosis specific CD8+ T-cell immune response in South African patients with active tuberculosis. PLoS ONE (2013) 8:e58309.

10. Ayepola O R, Chegou N N, Brooks N L and Oguntibeju O O. Kolaviron, a Garcinia biflavonoid complex ameliorates hyperglycemia-mediated hepatic injury in rats via suppression of inflammatory responses. BMC Complement Altern Med (2013) 13:363.

11. du Plessis N, Loebenberg L, Kriel M, von Groote-Bidlingmaier F, Ribechini E, Loxton A G, van Helden P D, Lutz M B and Walzl G. Increased frequency of myeloid-derived suppressor cells during active tuberculosis and after recent mycobacterium tuberculosis infection suppresses T-cell function. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2013) 188:724-732.

12. Kleinsteuber K, Heesch K, Schattling S, Kohns M, Sander-Jülch C, Walzl G, Hesseling A, Mayatepek E, Fleischer B, Marx F M and Jacobsen M. Decreased expression of miR-21, miR-26a, miR-29a, and miR-142-3p in CD4⁺ T cells and peripheral blood from tuberculosis patients. PLoS ONE (2013) 8:e61609.

13. Mandalakas A M, van Wyk S, Kirchner H L, Walzl G, Cotton M, Rabie H, Kriel B, Gie R P, Schaaf H S and Hesseling A C. Detecting tuberculosis infection in HIV-infected children: a study of diagnostic accuracy, confounding and interaction. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. (2013) 32:e111-118..

14. Phalane K G, Kriel M, Loxton A G, Menezes A, Stanley K, van der Spuy G D, Walzl G and Chegou N N. Differential expression of host biomarkers in saliva and serum samples from individuals with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis. Mediators Inflamm. (2013) 2013:981984.

15. Shenai S, Amisano D, Ronacher K, Kriel M, Banada P P, Song T, Lee M, Joh J S, Winter J, Thayer R, Via L E, Kim S, Barry C E 3, Walzl G and Alland D. Exploring alternative biomaterials for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV-negative patients by use of the GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2013) 51:4161-4166.

16. Sutherland J S, Lalor M K, Black G F, Ambrose L R, Loxton A G, Chegou N N, Kassa D, Mihret A, Howe R, Mayanja-Kizza H, Gomez M P, Donkor S, Franken K, Hanekom W, Klein M R, Parida S K, Boom W H, Thiel B A, Crampin A C, Ota M, Walzl G, Ottenhoff T H M, Dockrell H M, Kaufmann S H E and and the GCGH Biomarkers for TB consortium . Analysis of Host Responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Antigens in a Multi-Site Study of Subjects with Different TB and HIV Infection States in Sub-Saharan Africa. PLoS ONE (2013) 8:e74080.



1. Acute helminth infection enhances early macrophage mediated control of mycobacterial infection.

Du Plessis N, Kleynhans L, Thiart L, van Helden PD, Brombacher F, Horsnell WG, Walzl G. Mucosal Immunol. 2012 Dec 19

2. Diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates from New Pulmonary Tuberculosis Cases in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Mihret A, Bekele Y, Loxton AG, Jordan AM, Yamuah L, Aseffa A, Howe R, Walzl G.Tuberc Res Treat. 2012;2012:892079. Epub 2012 Nov 22.

3. Detecting Tuberculosis Infection in HIV-Infected Children: A Study of Diagnostic Accuracy, Confounding and Interaction.

Mandalakas AM, van Wyk S, Kirchner HL, Walzl G, Cotton M, Rabie H, Kriel B, Gie RP, Schaaf HS, Hesseling AC. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2012 Nov 28.

4. Plasma cytokines and chemokines differentiate between active disease and non-active tuberculosis infection.

Mihret A, Bekele Y, Bobosha K, Kidd M, Aseffa A, Howe R, Walzl G. J Infect. 2012 Nov 20. doi:pii: S0163-4453(12)00339-8.

5. Serodiagnostic markers for the prediction of the outcome of intensive phase tuberculosis therapy.

Baumann R, Kaempfer S, Chegou NN, Nene NF, Veenstra H, Spallek R, Bolliger CT, Lukey PT, van Helden PD, Singh M, Walzl G. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2012 Nov 2

6. BDNF Val66Met and DRD2 Taq1A polymorphisms interact to influence PTSD symptom severity: a preliminary investigation in a South African population.

Hemmings SM, Martin LI, Klopper M, van der Merwe L, Aitken L, de Wit E, Black GF, Hoal EG, Walzl G, Seedat S. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2013 Jan 10;40:273-80

7. Plasma Level of IL-4 Differs in Patients Infected with Different Modern Lineages of M. tuberculosis.

Mihret A, Bekele Y, Loxton AG, Aseffa A, Howe R, Walzl G. J Trop Med. 2012;2012:518564

8. Effect of Ascaris Lumbricoides specific IgE on tuberculin skin test responses in children in a high-burden setting: a cross-sectional community-based study.

Van Soelen N, Mandalakas AM, Kirchner HL, Walzl G, Grewal HM, Jacobsen M, Hesseling AC. BMC Infect Dis. 2012 Sep 11;12:211

9. Biomarkers of inflammation, immunosuppression and stress with active disease are revealed by metabolomic profiling of tuberculosis patients.

Weiner J 3rd, Parida SK, Maertzdorf J, Black GF, Repsilber D, Telaar A, Mohney RP, Arndt-Sullivan C, Ganoza CA, Faé KC, Walzl G, Kaufmann SH. PLoS One. 2012;7(7):e40221

10. Detection and treatment of subclinical tuberculosis.

Robertson BD, Altmann D, Barry C, Bishai B, Cole S, Dick T, Duncan K, Dye C, Ehrt S, Esmail H, Flynn J, Hafner R, Handley G, Hanekom W, van Helden P, Kaplan G, Kaufmann SH, Kim P, Lienhardt C, Mizrahi V, Rubin E, Schnappinger D, Sherman D, Thole J, Vandal O, Walzl G, Warner D, Wilkinson R, Young D. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2012 Nov;92(6):447-52

11. Potential of host markers produced by infection phase-dependent antigen-stimulated cells for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in a highly endemic area.

Chegou NN, Essone PN, Loxton AG, Stanley K, Black GF, van der Spuy GD, van Helden PD, Franken KL, Parida SK, Klein MR, Kaufmann SH, Ottenhoff TH, Walzl G. PLoS One. 2012;7(6):e38501

12. Well-quantified tuberculosis exposure is a reliable surrogate measure of tuberculosis infection.

Mandalakas AM, Kirchner HL, Lombard C, Walzl G, Grewal HM, Gie RP, Hesseling AC. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2012 Aug;16(8):1033-9

13. Development of a diagnostic gene expression assay for tuberculosis and its use under field conditions in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer).

Parsons SD, Menezes AM, Cooper D, Walzl G, Warren RM, van Helden PD. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2012 Aug 15;148(3-4):337-42

14. Effect of standard tuberculosis treatment on plasma cytokine levels in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis.

Riou C, Perez Peixoto B, Roberts L, Ronacher K, Walzl G, Manca C, Rustomjee R, Mthiyane T, Fallows D, Gray CM, Kaplan G. PLoS One. 2012;7(5):e36886

15. Symptomatic vaginal discharge is a poor predictor of sexually transmitted infections and genital tract inflammation in high-risk women in South Africa.

Mlisana K, Naicker N, Werner L, Roberts L, van Loggerenberg F, Baxter C, Passmore JA, Grobler AC, Sturm AW, Williamson C, Ronacher K, Walzl G, Abdool Karim SS.

J Infect Dis. 2012 Jul 1;206(1):6-14

16. Heparin-binding hemagglutinin induces IFN-γ(+) IL-2(+) IL-17(+) multifunctional CD4(+) T cells during latent but not active tuberculosis disease.

Loxton AG, Black GF, Stanley K, Walzl G. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2012 May;19(5):746-51

17. Potential of novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection phase-dependent antigens in the diagnosis of TB disease in a high burden setting.

Chegou NN, Black GF, Loxton AG, Stanley K, Essone PN, Klein MR, Parida SK, Kaufmann SH, Doherty TM, Friggen AH, Franken KL, Ottenhoff TH, Walzl G. BMC Infect Dis. 2012 Jan 20;12:10

18. Baseline predictors of sputum culture conversion in pulmonary tuberculosis: importance of cavities, smoking, time to detection and W-Beijing genotype.

Visser ME, Stead MC, Walzl G, Warren R, Schomaker M, Grewal HM, Swart EC, Maartens G. PLoS One. 2012;7(1)

19. Genital tract inflammation during early HIV-1 infection predicts higher plasma viral load set point in women.

Roberts L, Passmore JA, Mlisana K, Williamson C, Little F, Bebell LM, Walzl G, Abrahams MR, Woodman Z, Abdool Karim Q, Abdool Karim SS. J Infect Dis. 2012 Jan 15;205(2):194-203



1. The influence of different helminth infection phenotypes on immune responses against HIV in co-infected adults in South Africa.

Mkhize-Kwitshana ZL, Taylor M, Jooste P, Mabaso ML, Walzl G. BMC Infect Dis. 2011 Oct 14;11:273. doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-11-273

2. Medroxyprogesterone acetate alters Mycobacterium bovis BCG-induced cytokine production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of contraceptive users.

Kleynhans L, Du Plessis N, Black GF, Loxton AG, Kidd M, van Helden PD, Walzl G, Ronacher K. PLoS One. 2011;6(9):e24639

3. Molecular bacterial load assay, a culture-free biomarker for rapid and accurate quantification of sputum Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacillary load during treatment.

Honeyborne I, McHugh TD, Phillips PP, Bannoo S, Bateson A, Carroll N, Perrin FM, Ronacher K, Wright L, van Helden PD, Walzl G, Gillespie SH. J Clin Microbiol. 2011 Nov;49(11):3905

4. Predominance of interleukin-22 over interleukin-17 at the site of disease in human tuberculosis.

Matthews K, Wilkinson KA, Kalsdorf B, Roberts T, Diacon A, Walzl G, Wolske J, Ntsekhe M, Syed F, Russell J, Mayosi BM, Dawson R, Dheda K, Wilkinson RJ, Hanekom WA, Scriba TJ. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2011 Nov;91(6):587-93

5. Tuberculosis assays: past, present and future.

Chegou NN, Hoek KG, Kriel M, Warren RM, Victor TC, Walzl G. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2011 Apr;9(4):457-69

6. Immunological biomarkers of tuberculosis.

Walzl G, Ronacher K, Hanekom W, Scriba TJ, Zumla A. Nat Rev Immunol. 2011 May;11(5):343-54

7. The effect of vitamin A and zinc supplementation on treatment outcomes in pulmonary tuberculosis: a randomized controlled trial.

Visser ME, Grewal HM, Swart EC, Dhansay MA, Walzl G, Swanevelder S, Lombard C, Maartens G. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jan;93(1):93-100

8. Human gene expression profiles of susceptibility and resistance in tuberculosis.

Maertzdorf J, Repsilber D, Parida SK, Stanley K, Roberts T, Black G, Walzl G, Kaufmann SH. Genes Immun. 2011 Jan;12(1):15-22

9. Hypercytokinaemia accompanies HIV-tuberculosis immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome.

Tadokera R, Meintjes G, Skolimowska KH, Wilkinson KA, Matthews K, Seldon R, Chegou NN, Maartens G, Rangaka MX, Rebe K, Walzl G, Wilkinson RJ. Eur Respir J. 2011 May;37(5):1248-59

10. Suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 is affected in T-cells from tuberculosisTB patients.

Jacobsen M, Repsilber D, Kleinsteuber K, Gutschmidt A, Schommer-Leitner S, Black G, Walzl G, Kaufmann SH. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2011 Sep;17(9):1323-31



1. Challenges and perspectives for improved management of HIV/Mycobacterium tuberculosis co-infection.

Sester M, Giehl C, McNerney R, Kampmann B, Walzl G, Cuchí P, Wingfield C, Lange C, Migliori GB, Kritski AL, Meyerhans A; European Network for global cooperation in the field of AIDS and TB (EUCO-Net). Eur Respir J. 2010 Dec;36(6):1242-7

2. Higher human CD4 T cell response to novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis latency associated antigens Rv2660 and Rv2659 in latent infection compared with tuberculosis disease.

Govender L, Abel B, Hughes EJ, Scriba TJ, Kagina BM, de Kock M, Walzl G, Black G, Rosenkrands I, Hussey GD, Mahomed H, Andersen P, Hanekom WA. Vaccine. 2010 Dec 10;29(1):51-7.

3. Biomarkers and diagnostics for tuberculosis: progress, needs, and translation into practice.

Wallis RS, Pai M, Menzies D, Doherty TM, Walzl G, Perkins MD, Zumla A. Lancet. 2010 May 29;375(9729):1920-37.

4. Interferon-gamma release assays for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in children with cancer.

Stefan DC, Dippenaar A, Detjen AK, Schaaf HS, Marais BJ, Kriel B, Loebenberg L, Walzl G, Hesseling AC. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2010 Jun;14(6):689-94.

5. Baseline sputum time to detection predicts month two culture conversion and relapse in non-HIV-infected patients.

Hesseling AC, Walzl G, Enarson DA, Carroll NM, Duncan K, Lukey PT, Lombard C, Donald PR, Lawrence KA, Gie RP, van Helden PD, Beyers N. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2010 May;14(5):560-70.

5. Plasma cytokine levels during acute HIV-1 infection predict HIV disease progression.

Roberts L, Passmore JA, Williamson C, Little F, Bebell LM, Mlisana K, Burgers WA, van Loggerenberg F, Walzl G, Djoba Siawaya JF, Karim QA, Karim SS. AIDS. 2010 Mar 27;24(6):819-31.

6. Biomarker discovery in heterogeneous tissue samples -taking the in-silico deconfounding approach.

Repsilber D, Kern S, Telaar A, Walzl G, Black GF, Selbig J, Parida SK, Kaufmann SH, Jacobsen M. BMC Bioinformatics. 2010 Jan 14;11:27.

7. Direct comparison of the diagnostic yield of ultrasound-assisted Abrams and Tru-Cut needle biopsies for pleural tuberculosis.

Koegelenberg CF, Bolliger CT, Theron J, Walzl G, Wright CA, Louw M, Diacon AH. Thorax. 2010 Oct;65(10):857-62.



1. Delaying BCG vaccination from birth to 10 weeks of age may result in an enhanced memory CD4 T cell response.

Kagina BM, Abel B, Bowmaker M, Scriba TJ, Gelderbloem S, Smit E, Erasmus M, Nene N, Walzl G, Black G, Hussey GD, Hesseling AC, Hanekom WA. Vaccine. 2009 Sep 4;27(40):5488-95.

2. Differential cytokine/chemokines and KL-6 profiles in patients with different forms of tuberculosis.

Djoba Siawaya JF, Chegou NN, van den Heuvel MM, Diacon AH, Beyers N, van Helden P, Walzl G. Cytokine. 2009 Aug;47(2):132-6.

3. Immunogenicity of novel DosR regulon-encoded candidate antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in three high-burden populations in Africa.

Black GF, Thiel BA, Ota MO, Parida SK, Adegbola R, Boom WH, Dockrell HM, Franken KL, Friggen AH, Hill PC, Klein MR, Lalor MK, Mayanja H, Schoolnik G, Stanley K, Weldingh K, Kaufmann SH, Walzl G, Ottenhoff TH; GCGH Biomarkers for TB Consortium. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2009 Aug;16(8):1203-12

4. Short-term reproducibility of a commercial interferon gamma release assay.

Detjen AK, Loebenberg L, Grewal HM, Stanley K, Gutschmidt A, Kruger C, Du Plessis N, Kidd M, Beyers N, Walzl G, Hesseling AC. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2009 Aug;16(8):1170-5.

5. Host markers in QuantiFERON supernatants differentiate active TB from latent TB infection: preliminary report.

Chegou NN, Black GF, Kidd M, van Helden PD, Walzl G. BMC Pulm Med. 2009 May 16;9:21

6. Differential cytokine secretion and early treatment response in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis.

Djoba Siawaya JF, Beyers N, van Helden P, Walzl G. Clin Exp Immunol. 2009 Apr;156(1):69-77.

7. Pleural tuberculosis in patients with early HIV infection is associated with increased TNF-alpha expression and necrosis in granulomas.

Bezuidenhout J, Roberts T, Muller L, van Helden P, Walzl G. PLoS One. 2009;4(1):e4228

8. Highly discordant T cell responses in individuals with recent exposure to household tuberculosis.

Hesseling AC, Mandalakas AM, Kirchner HL, Chegou NN, Marais BJ, Stanley K, Zhu X, Black G, Beyers N, Walzl G. Thorax. 2009 Oct;64(10):840-6.



1. Biomarkers for TB treatment response: challenges and future strategies.

Walzl G, Ronacher K, Djoba Siawaya JF, Dockrell HM. J Infect. 2008 Aug;57(2):103-9

2. An evaluation of commercial fluorescent bead-based luminex cytokine assays.

Djoba Siawaya JF, Roberts T, Babb C, Black G, Golakai HJ, Stanley K, Bapela NB, Hoal E, Parida S, van Helden P, Walzl G.PLoS One. 2008 Jul 2;3(7):e2535.

3. Differential expression of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-4 delta 2 mRNA, but not transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), TGF-beta RII, Foxp3, gamma interferon, T-bet, or GATA-3 mRNA, in patients with fast and slow responses to antituberculosis treatment.

Djoba Siawaya JF, Bapela NB, Ronacher K, Beyers N, van Helden P, Walzl G. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2008 Aug;15(8):1165-70.

4. Evaluation of adapted whole-blood interferon-gamma release assays for the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis.

Chegou NN, Walzl G, Bolliger CT, Diacon AH, van den Heuvel MM. Respiration. 2008;76(2):131-8

5. High level of discordant IGRA results in HIV-infected adults and children.

Mandalakas AM, Hesseling AC, Chegou NN, Kirchner HL, Zhu X, Marais BJ, Black GF, Beyers N, Walzl G. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2008 Apr;12(4):417-23.

6. Immune parameters as markers of tuberculosis extent of disease and early prediction of anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy response.

Djoba Siawaya JF, Bapela NB, Ronacher K, Veenstra H, Kidd M, Gie R, Beyers N, van Helden P, Walzl G. J Infect. 2008 May;56(5):340-7.

7. Distinct, specific IL-17- and IL-22-producing CD4+ T cell subsets contribute to the human anti-mycobacterial immune response.

Scriba TJ, Kalsdorf B, Abrahams DA, Isaacs F, Hofmeister J, Black G, Hassan HY, Wilkinson RJ, Walzl G, Gelderbloem SJ, Mahomed H, Hussey GD, Hanekom WA. J Immunol. 2008 Feb 1;180(3):1962-70.

8. High levels of intracellular IL-4 are expressed in circulating apoptotic T cells in patients with tuberculosis and in community controls.

Veenstra H, Baumann R, Lukey PT, Beyers N, van Helden PD, Walzl G. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2008 Jan;88(1):21-30.



1. Changes in the kinetics of intracellular IFN-gamma production in TB patients during treatment.

Veenstra H, Crous I, Brahmbhatt S, Lukey P, Beyers N, van Helden PD, Walzl G. Clin Immunol. 2007 Sep;124(3):336-44.

2. Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and sputum conversion time in pulmonary tuberculosis patients.

Babb C, van der Merwe L, Beyers N, Pheiffer C, Walzl G, Duncan K, van Helden P, Hoal EG. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2007 Jul;87(4):295-302

3. Correlates for disease progression and prognosis during concurrent HIV/TB infection.

Djoba Siawaya JF, Ruhwald M, Eugen-Olsen J, Walzl G. Int J Infect Dis. 2007 Jul;11(4):289-99.

4. Immunosuppression during active tuberculosis is characterized by decreased interferon- gamma production and CD25 expression with elevated forkhead box P3, transforming growth factor- beta , and interleukin-4 mRNA levels.

Roberts T, Beyers N, Aguirre A, Walzl G. J Infect Dis. 2007 Mar 15;195(6):870-8.



1. TB epidemiology and human genetics.

van Helden PD, Möller M, Babb C, Warren R, Walzl G, Uys P, Hoal E. Novartis Found Symp. 2006;279:17-31; discussion 31-41, 216-9. Review.

2. Antimicrobial resistance in tuberculosis: an international perspective.

van Helden PD, Donald PR, Victor TC, Schaaf HS, Hoal EG, Walzl G, Warren RM. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2006 Oct;4(5):759-66. Review.

3. Immune markers measured before treatment predict outcome of intensive phase tuberculosis therapy.

Brahmbhatt S, Black GF, Carroll NM, Beyers N, Salker F, Kidd M, Lukey PT, Duncan K, van Helden P, Walzl G. Clin Exp Immunol. 2006 Nov;146(2):243-52.

4. Changes in leucocyte and lymphocyte subsets during tuberculosis treatment; prominence of CD3dimCD56+ natural killer T cells in fast treatment responders.

Veenstra H, Baumann R, Carroll NM, Lukey PT, Kidd M, Beyers N, Bolliger CT, van Helden PD, Walzl G. Clin Exp Immunol. 2006 Aug;145(2):252-60.

5. Role of CCL5 (RANTES) in viral lung disease.

Culley FJ, Pennycook AM, Tregoning JS, Dodd JS, Walzl G, Wells TN, Hussell T, Openshaw PJ. J Virol. 2006 Aug;80(16):8151-7.

6. Recall of intestinal helminthiasis by HIV-infected South Africans and avoidance of possible misinterpretation of egg excretion in worm/HIV co-infection analyses.

Adams VJ, Markus MB, Kwitshana ZL, Dhansay MA, van der Merwe L, Walzl G, Fincham JE. BMC Infect Dis. 2006 May 26;6:88.