Immunology Research Group
Welcome to Stellenbosch University

​​​Stellenbosch University Immunology Research Group



  1. Phenotypically resembling myeloid derived suppressor cells are increased in children with HIV and exposed/infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Nelita Du Plessis, Ruschca Jacobs, Andrea Gutschmidt, Zhuo Fang, Paul D. van Helden, Manfred B. Lutz, Anneke C. Hesseling, Gerhard Walzl.Eur J Immunol. 2017 Jan;47(1):107-118

  2. Successful TB treatment induces B-cells expressing FASL and IL5RA mRNA.

    van Rensburg IC, Wagman C, Stanley K, Beltran C, Ronacher K, Walzl G, Loxton AG. Oncotarget. 2016 Sep 22. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.12184.

  3. Persisting positron emission tomography lesion activity and Mycobacterium tuberculosis mRNA after tuberculosis cure.

    Malherbe ST, Shenai S, Ronacher K, Loxton AG, Dolganov G, Kriel M, Van T, Chen RY, Warwick J, Via LE, Song T, Lee M, Schoolnik G, Tromp G, Alland D, Barry CE 3rd, Winter J, Walzl G; Catalysis TB–Biomarker Consortium, Lucas L, Spuy GV, Stanley K, Theart L, Smith B, Burger N, Beltran CG, Maasdorp E, Ellmann A, Choi H, Joh J, Dodd LE, Allwood B, Kogelenberg C, Vorster M, Griffith-Richards S. Nat Med. 2016 Sep 5. doi: 10.1038/nm.4177.

  4. Characterization of progressive HIV-associated tuberculosis using 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission and computed tomography.

    Esmail H, Lai RP, Lesosky M, Wilkinson KA, Graham CM, Coussens AK, Oni T, Warwick JM, Said-Hartley Q, Koegelenberg CF, Walzl G, Flynn JL, Young DB, Barry Iii CE, O'Garra A, Wilkinson RJ. Nat Med. 2016 Sep 5. doi: 10.1038/nm.4161

  5. Identification of novel host biomarkers in plasma as candidates for the immunodiagnosis of tuberculosis disease and monitoring of tuberculosis treatment response.

    Jacobs R, Malherbe S, Loxton AG, Stanley K, van der Spuy G, Walzl G, Chegou NN. Oncotarget. 2016 Aug 19. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.11420.

  6. Sputum is a surrogate for bronchoalveolar lavage for monitoring Mycobacterium tuberculosis transcriptional profiles in TB patients.

    Garcia BJ, Loxton AG, Dolganov GM, Van TT, Davis JL, de Jong BC, Voskuil MI, Leach SM, Schoolnik GK, Walzl G, Strong M, Walter ND. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2016 Sep;100:89-94. doi: 10.1016/ Epub 2016 Jul 25.

  7. Bacterial Loads Measured by the Xpert MTB/RIF Assay as Markers of Culture Conversion and Bacteriological Cure in Pulmonary TB.

    Shenai S, Ronacher K, Malherbe S, Stanley K, Kriel M, Winter J, Peppard T, Barry CE, Wang J, Dodd LE, Via LE, Barry CE 3rd, Walzl G, Alland D. PLoS One. 2016 Aug 10;11(8):e0160062. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0160062

  8. Diagnostic Potential of Novel Salivary Host Biomarkers as Candidates for the Immunological Diagnosis of Tuberculosis Disease and Monitoring of Tuberculosis Treatment Response.

    Jacobs R, Maasdorp E, Malherbe S, Loxton AG, Stanley K, van der Spuy G, Walzl G, Chegou NN. PLoS One. 2016 Aug 3;11(8):e0160546. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0160546. eCollection 2016.

  9. Phenotypic analysis of peripheral B cell populations during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and disease.

    du Plessis WJ, Keyser A, Walzl G, Loxton AG. J Inflamm (Lond). 2016 Jul 29;13:23. doi: 10.1186/s12950-016-0133-4. eCollection 2016.

  10. Evaluation of cytokine responses against novel Mtb antigens as diagnostic markers for TB disease.

    Awoniyi DO, Teuchert A, Sutherland JS, Mayanja-Kizza H, Howe R, Mihret A, Loxton AG, Sheehama J, Kassa D, Crampin AC, Dockrell HM, Kidd M, Rosenkrands I, Geluk A, Ottenhoff TH, Corstjens PL, Chegou NN, Walzl G; AE-TBC Consortium. J Infect. 2016 Sep;73(3):219-30. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2016.04.036. Epub 2016 Jun 14.

  11. Diagnostic performance of a seven-marker serum protein biosignature for the diagnosis of active TB disease in African primary healthcare clinic attendees with signs and symptoms suggestive of TB.

    Chegou NN, Sutherland JS, Malherbe S, Crampin AC, Corstjens PL, Geluk A, Mayanja-Kizza H, Loxton AG, van der Spuy G, Stanley K, Kotzé LA, van der Vyver M, Rosenkrands I, Kidd M, van Helden PD, Dockrell HM, Ottenhoff TH, Kaufmann SH, Walzl G; AE-TBC consortium. Thorax. 2016 Sep;71(9):785-94. doi: 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2015-207999. Epub 2016 May 4

  12. Profiling persistent tubercule bacilli from patient sputa during therapy predicts early drug efficacy.

    Honeyborne I, McHugh TD, Kuittinen I, Cichonska A, Evangelopoulos D, Ronacher K, van Helden PD, Gillespie SH, Fernandez-Reyes D, Walzl G, Rousu J, Butcher PD, Waddell SJ. BMC Med. 2016 Apr 7;14:68. doi: 10.1186/s12916-016-0609-3.

  13. The Functional Response of B Cells to Antigenic Stimulation: A Preliminary Report of Latent Tuberculosis.

    du Plessis WJ, Kleynhans L, du Plessis N, Stanley K, Malherbe ST, Maasdorp E, Ronacher K, Chegou NN, Walzl G, Loxton AG. PLoS One. 2016 Apr 6;11(4):e0152710. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0152710. eCollection 2016.

  14. A blood RNA signature for tuberculosis disease risk: a prospective cohort study.

    Zak DE, Penn-Nicholson A, Scriba TJ, Thompson E, Suliman S, Amon LM, Mahomed H, Erasmus M, Whatney W, Hussey GD, Abrahams D, Kafaar F, Hawkridge T, Verver S, Hughes EJ, Ota M, Sutherland J, Howe R, Dockrell HM, Boom WH, Thiel B, Ottenhoff TH, Mayanja-Kizza H, Crampin AC, Downing K, Hatherill M, Valvo J, Shankar S, Parida SK, Kaufmann SH, Walzl G, Aderem A, Hanekom WA; ACS and GC6-74 cohort study groups. Lancet. 2016 Jun 4;387(10035):2312-22. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)01316-1. Epub 2016 Mar 24.

  15. The Effect of Deworming on Tests of Tuberculosis Infection in Children With Recent Tuberculosis Exposure: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Van der Zalm MM, van Soelen N, Mandalakas AM, Jacobsen M, Detjen AK, Marx FM, Grewal HM, Cotton MF, Walzl G, Hesseling AC.

  16. Host biomarkers detected in saliva show promise as markers for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis disease and monitoring of the response to tuberculosis treatment.

    Jacobs R, Tshehla E, Malherbe S, Kriel M, Loxton AG, Stanley K, van der Spuy G, Walzl G, Chegou NN. Cytokine. 2016 May;81:50-6. doi:10.1016/j.cyto.2016.02.004. Epub 2016 Feb 13.

  17. Use of lateral flow assays to determine IP-10 and CCL4 levels in pleural effusions and whole blood for TB diagnosis.

    Sutherland JS, Mendy J, Gindeh A, Walzl G, Togun T, Owolabi O, Donkor S, Ota MO, Kon Fat ET, Ottenhoff TH, Geluk A, Corstjens PL. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2016 Jan;96:31-6. doi: 10.1016/ Epub 2015 Nov 14

  18. B cells as multi-functional players during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and disease.

    du Plessis WJ, Walzl G, Loxton AG. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2016 Mar;97:118-25. doi: 10.1016/ Epub 2015 Nov 3. Review.

  19. QuantiFERON-TB performance enhanced by novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific antigens.

    Losi M, Knights AJ, Mariani F, Altieri AM, Paone G, Loxton AG, Chegou NN, Kenneth J, Alma MG, Colizzi V, Walzl G, Saltini C, Boyle J, Amicosante M. Eur Respir J. 2016 Feb;47(2):660-4. doi: 10.1183/13993003.01015-2015. Epub 2015 Nov 19.