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Global Distribution of Foc TR4

Foc TR4 was first discovered in Malaysia and Indonesia when multi-national banana export companies extended their production to these countries. The new plantations were soon discarded, but the fungus escaped and rapidly spread throughout both countries, attacking other local varieties produced by small-growers. In 1997 Foc TR4 was reported on Cavendish in the Northern Territory of Australia, and by 2008 it was officially reported in the Philippines, Taiwan and mainland China. It has, however, not been found in Thailand, Vietnam and Cambodia where non-Cavendish varieties are grown. Foc TR4 has caused significant losses to Cavendish production in all the Asian countries where it occurs. Spread has recently occurred outside of Asia to Oman (2012) and Jordan (2013). The outbreak in Jordan may prove significant to incursions in Africa because apple bananas are traded from South Sudan to Jordan, so there may be a risk of transfer of soil infested with Foc TR4 on vehicle tyres or shoes of drivers.

Global distribution of Foc TR4.png

(Source: David Sikora)