Articles / opinion pieces about teaching for the Faculty of Education
LIST OF T&L PUBLICATIONS 2016
ALBERTYN RM, FRICK BL. A collaborative higher education initiative for leadership development: Lessons for knowledge sharing. South African Journal of Higher Education 2016; 30(5):11-27.
BITZER EM, DE JAGER E. Lecturers' professional identity: The case of chartered accountants in academia. South African Journal of Higher Education 2016; 30(4):171-189.
DAVIDS M. BOSMAN V, EDWARDS N. The theory and practice of microteaching: scaling down to scale up. In: Okeke CIO, Abongdia JA, Adu EO, van Wyk MM & Wolhuter CC (eds), Learn to Teach: A handbook for Teaching Practice. Oxford University Press, Cape Town, South Africa, 2016:169-188.
DAVIDS N. On extending the truncated parameters of transformation in higher education in South Africa into a language of democratic engagement and justice, Transformation in Higher Education 2016; 1(1):1-7.
DAVIDS N & WAGHID Y. Higher education as a pedagogical site for citizenship education. Education, Citizenship and Social Justice 2016; 11(1):34-43.
FOURIE-MALHERBE M. Evidence for excellence in teaching: the role of institutional research. In: Botha J & Muller NJ (eds.) Institutional research in South African Higher Education. Intersecting contexts and practices, Sun Media, Stellenbosch, South Africa, 2016: 213-230.
FRICK BL, ALBERTYN RM, BRODIN E, McKENNA S & CLAESSON S. The role of doctoral education in early career academic development. In: Fourie-Malherbe M, Albertyn R, Aitchison C & Bitzer E (Eds.) Postgraduate Supervision: Future foci for the knowledge society, Sun Media, Stellenbosch, South Africa, 2016:203-219.
KLAPWIJK N & VAN DER WALT C. English-Plus Multilingualism as the New Linguistic Capital? Implications of University Students' Attitudes Towards Languages of Instruction in a Multilingual Environment. Journal of Language, Identity & Education 2016; 15(2):67-82.
LANGEVELDT F & FRICK BL. Volwasse studente in hoëronderwysinstellings: Die portefeulje-ontwikkelingskursus as 'n voorbereidingsmeganisme vir akademiese sukses. LitNet Akademies 2016; 13(1):396-424.
LE GRANGE LLL. Decolonising the university curriculum. South African Journal of Higher Education 2016; 30(2):1-12.
LESHEM S. A studio tells a story: student-teachers learn differently. European Journal of Teacher Education 2016; 39(2):174-189.
PFEIFFER V & VAN DER WALT C. Improving academic writing through expressive writing. Journal for Language Teaching (SAALT Journal for Language Teaching) 2016; 50(2):55-77.
THERON E, BITZER EM. Studente se leerbetrokkenheid aan 'n privaat hoëronderwysinstelling: navorsing en oorsigartikels / Student learning engagement at a private higher education institution. Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe 2016; 56(1):207-220.
VAN DER WALT C. Reconsidering the role of language-in-education policies in multilingual higher education contexts. Spil Plus 2016; 49:85-104.
The following readings are published in Stellenbosch University's Faculty of Education Research Bulletin, the first of which appeared in February 2016:
Carl, A. “Bridging the gap between teaching and learning and research: Is scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) the answer?": pages 3-5.
Davids, N. “On reconciling curricular reform with teaching democratic citizenship education.": pages 9-11.
Robinson, M. “Improving student teachers' in-school experiences is a smart investment.": pages 29-31.
Layton, D. M. (2015). “The role of the tutorial system in enabling students' academic success." SAJHE 29(4): 198-210.
Abstract: A worrying trend in South Africa has been the high attrition rate for first-time university students. At the University of Johannesburg (UJ), one intervention used to address this low throughput rate is the tutorial system. While it is important to broaden formal access to universities, it is also crucial to provide first-year students with access to epistemologies of their discipline to ensure their academic success. This can potentially be enabled through the tutorial system. While tutorials are growing in size due to increased numbers, the tutorial still has a role to play in giving students the opportunity to engage with each other and their tutor in a smaller group that that of the lecture. For the tutorial system to enable students' academic success, however, tutors need to support their students not only in their acquisition of the target epistemologies, but also to take cognizance of their students' ontological needs.
Keywords: large classes, lecturing, teaching and learning, student-centred, course content
Moodley, P. (2015). “Student overload at university: large class teaching challenges." SAJHE 29(3): 150-167.
Abstract: The tireless efforts of lecturers to deal with the challenges of large classes at universities continue as they persevere to provide quality education to the masses of students. Many issues plague lecturers and students alike, which inadvertently impact on the teaching and learning experience. This article reports on a study that examined the challenges faces by lecturers with large classes at higher education institutions (HEIs) and the different approaches that are used to overcome these challenges. The contribution of this study is that it documents strategies with the current technological environment to enhance student participation in large classes. The study was conducted at two universities through the use of questionnaires and found that lecturers at both HEIs were faced with similar challenges in teaching/lecturing large classes. The current feasible solution to support the traditional form of lecturing is an integrative approach that incorporates the use of information communication technologies (ICTs) as well as various other teaching approaches, in reaching all students in large classes.
Keywords: academic performance, lecture attendance, South Africa, university
Papageorgiou, E. and P. Townsend (2014). “Does lecture attendance matter? The good, the bad and the ugly." SAJHE 28(5): 1625-1642.
Abstract: This article reports on a study that investigated the impact of lecture attendance on the academic performance of first-year accounting students at a South African university. The objectives of the study were, firstly, to ascertain whether lecture attendance influences students' performance (measured in terms of their assessment scores) and, secondly, whether 'better students' (measured in terms of symbols obtained in English, Mathematics and Accounting the South African National Senior Certificate (NSC)) believe that lecture attendance is important to attain better results. The research study used a mixed method design, which was both quantitative and experimental. The findings indicated three scenarios, which are reflected in the article as the good, the bad and the ugly, in terms of lecture attendance levels and academic performance. The value of the study resides in the insights gained about the salience of various lecture attendance trends in first-year accounting students.
Albertyn, R. M., C. A. Kapp, et al. (2007). “Taking the sting out of evaluation: Rating scales for thesis examination." SAJHE 21(8): 1207-1221.
Abstract: The role of assessment and evaluation in postgraduate research is problematic due to varying perceptions of standards and criteria regarding expectations of a postgraduate research thesis. To improve the standard of evaluation of theses and dissertations, a set of criteria, as well as rating scales for each criterion, was developed. These criteria and rating scales were applied to the evaluation of theses by over 150 academics in six workshops on the assessment and evaluation of theses and dissertations at different South African universities. The outcomes of each participant's evaluations were compared to the formally appointed examiner's evaluation of that thesis. The findings from applications in workshops reflect a greater consistency in the use of criteria, more comprehensive holistic coverage of all criteria, greater accountability by the examiner and an easier process in writing an examiner's report. The rating scale provided a standardised approach across disciplines, but proved to be less lenient to the candidate.
Beets, P. and L. le Grange (2005). “"Africanising" assessment practices: Does the notion of ubuntu hold any promise?" SAJHE 19(Special Issue): 1197-1207.
Abstract: Changes in assessment theory and practice have become commonplace in many education systems across the globe. Many of the changes are evident in state education polices, which have implications for the ways in which teachers/lecturers perform their work. Calls have been made for more authentic ways of assessing learning and for assessment to become integral to teaching and learning processes. However, shifts in assessment theory and practice remain largely framed within a Western paradigm and increasing globalisation might lead to greater homogenisation of assessment practices. In this article we examine whether current shifts in assessment theory and practice provides space for accommodating the socio-cultural backgrounds of African learners. We further invoke the notion of ubuntu to explore its potential to provide a more nuanced understanding of authentic/alternative forms of assessment and examine ways in which the idea of ubuntu might contribute to disrupting the hegemony of contemporary assessment theory and practice, given its strong Western base. We specifically will look at implications that the Africanising of assessment might have for teacher education practices in South Africa.
Bitzer, E. (2001). “Understanding co-operative learning: a case study in tracing relationships to social constructivism and South African socio-educational thought." South African Journal of Higher Education 15(2): 98-104.
Abstract: The article outlines a case study whereby, in a B.Ed module on innovative teaching and learning strategies, students were challenged with the question: “How does co-operative learning relate to social constructivist learning theory, ubuntu, outcomes-based education (OBE) and (perhaps) the African Renaissance?" It describes how the students, through a co-operative learning process, researched and debated the question in four groups. The author's concerns that the students' view of educational practice might become inhibited by exposure to limited theories related to co-operative learning, were proven to be largely unfounded. The article concludes by arguing that co-operative learning as an innovative educational practice should be informed by multiple, relevant and contextualised theories, philosophies and approaches, enabling practitioners to make sense of why and how particular techniques should be employed to mediate learning, especially in a South African schooling environment.
Bitzer, E. (2005). “First-year students' perceptions of generic skills competence and academic performance: a case study at one university." SAJHE 19(3): 172-187.
Abstract: In view of the complex expectations of higher education and the difficulty of predicting the needs of constantly changing societies, it is important to determine the perceptions and expectations of students in higher education. In South Africa, strategies must be devised to determine whether, in what respects and what directions student development takes place. One way of determining this is by assessing students' perceptions of their own development by collecting relevant pre-entry data and comparing it to follow-up data for cohorts of students. This article describes work at one university in South Africa where a number of comprehensive models of student development assessment were explored. Theoretical considerations are discussed to establish pre-entry, end of first-year and end of undergraduate studies instrumentation to determine change in students' perceptions of their own development. Analytical results from comparisons within one cohort of students and descriptive results of three consecutive student surveys are provided. The relationship between student confidence on eight generic skills areas and end of first year academic results of the 2002 cohort of students are explored and discussed.
Bitzer, E. and H. Melkveld (2003). “Student learning for social relevance: the case of Melkhoutfontein." South African Journal of Higher Education 17(1): 200-207.
Abstract: The authors report on a project that was completed in the first semester of 2002 with the aim to enhance quality and social relevance of student learning experiences in a Bachelor of Education (B.Ed) programme at the University of Stellenbosch. Students in their final year of the B.Ed (Foundation Phase) Programme in the Faculty of Education were involved in a research project based on an action-and-developmental framework. Students had to use their learning experiences gained during a cultural/community tourism excursion to develop an action research report and a Life Skills learning programme for the Foundation Phase. They were exposed to the community of Melkhoutfontein in the Western Cape Province where they studied the potential of developing cultural tourism as a vehicle for multi-faceted learning in a community setting. The article contextualises the project, highlights its aims and goals, describes its research approach and analyses its outcomes and results. Findings suggest that student contextualisation of learning tasks and their increased levels of social awareness point towards promoting deep learning.
Bitzer, E. and H. Menkveld (2004). “Drawing on indigenous knowledge: Students' learning in and from a rural community." SAJHE 18(3): 226-240.
Abstract: Taking the lead from various perspectives on indigenous knowledge (Maher 2000; Warren 1991), the article outlines the facilitation of a two-pronged project to promote learning at different levels in tourism education. The project aimed at enhancing economic upliftment and skilling for sustainability in tourism by utilising, inter alia, the indigenous knowledge of a particular community. The first sub-project involved 11 adult learners from a rural community in the Western Cape Province who participated in a learning programme to develop cultural tourism products. In the second sub-project three groups of pre-service teachers from the University of Stellenbosch were exposed to the adult learners and the community and taught in and learnt from local schools for three consecutive years. The article focuses mainly on the second sub-project as run in 2004 and establishes whether the process of project development and implementation occurred in a fashion that reflected the claims to indigenous knowledge made by such frameworks as suggested by Easton, Nikiema and Essama (2002) and Ellen and Harris (1996). In particular, it establishes whether the student participants reflected increased sophistication in knowledge gain and application.
Bitzer, E. M. (2003). “Assessing students' changing perceptions of higher education." South African Journal of Higher Education 17(3).
Abstract: A major contribution of higher education institutions towards benefitting societies, is their potential to assist students in their academic progress as well as their progress in other spheres. To be able to assess how students change progressively, particularly in respect of change in perceptions during their undergraduate studies, relevant pre-entry data is needed. If a transformational approach to quality assurance and development is desirable in higher education, strategies and instrumentation for assessing student change and progress need to be continuously investigated. This article reports research directed at the adaptation and implementation of relevant assessment models, including Astin's comprehensive approach to student talent development, Kuh's model of student engagement and Tinto's longitudinal model of factors influencing student departure. It explores new possibilities of generating data on student change that might be potentially valuable to students, learning facilitators and researchers in higher education institutions. The article also proposes instrumentation that might assist higher education institutions in rethinking ways and means of determining students' perceptual change.
Bozelek, V., P. Rohleder, et al. (2007). “Students learning across differences in a multi-disciplinary virtual learning community." SAJHE 21(7): 812-825.
Abstract: Despite desegregation, and educational policies calling for increased inclusivity in higher education, students in South Africa generally continue to have homogenous social and learning experiences. This article reports on a collaborative student learning community across three disciplines at two universities. The e-learning project aimed to provide students an opportunity for collaborative learning across differences. Feedback and comments from the students revealed that students had the opportunity to learn about socio-economic difference in South African communities, but that there was some avoidance in engaging with issues of race and apartheid. What students most benefited from was learning about the different disciplines.
Carl, A. E. (2008). “Reconceptualising teacher training at a South African University: A case study." SAJHE 22(1): 17-40.
Abstract: It is essential for teacher training institutions to reflect continually on changes in education policy with the view of ensuring that teacher training programmes that take the present needs and policies into account are in place. This article describes a four-year process through which a particular faculty of education went in search of an applicable programme in an effort not only to merge contemporary needs with recent policy development, but also to provide relevant teacher training for a constantly changing school curriculum landscape. Normally institutions draw up the curricula of their teacher training programmes in isolation and there is little mutual communication regarding the reconceptualisation of their curricula. Through the description of a particular institution's process of reconceptualisation of a specific programme, this article aims to share perspectives that could be put to use in other contexts and with other parties. This process was characterised by active and inclusive deliberations within the institution itself, thorough research and various workshops, to arrive at a reconceptualised programme. (Contains 2 figures and 2 tables.)
Clandinin, D. J., D. Pusher, et al. (2007). “Navigating sites for narrative Inquiry." Journal of Teacher Education 58(1): 21-35.
Abstract: Narrative inquiry is a methodology that frequently appeals to teachers and teacher educators. However, this appeal and sense of comfort has advantages and disadvantages. Some assume narrative inquiries will be easy to design, live out, and represent in storied formats in journals, dissertations, or books. For the authors, though, narrative inquiry is much more than the telling of stories. There are complexities surrounding all phases of a narrative inquiry and, in this article, the authors pay particular attention to thinking about the design of narrative inquiries that focus on teachers' and teacher educators' own practices. They outline three commonplaces and eight design elements for consideration in narrative inquiry. They illustrate these elements using recently completed narrative inquiries. In this way, the authors show the complex dimensions of narrative inquiry, a kind of inquiry that requires particular kinds of wakefulness.
De Oliveira, A. M. P. and J. C. Barbosa “The Teachers' tensions in the practice of Mathematical Modelling."
Abstract: We present the result of an empirical study on which tensions the teachers has experienced when doing mathematical modelling. The context of this research was taken from the first experiences with mathematical modelling of three elementary school teachers from public schools. The data was collected through observation accomplished through filming of the classes, interviews after each class and narrative about the classes, with each teacher. The identified tensions in the teachers' practices were classified as: the tension of the students' involvement, the tension of the students' comprehension of mathematical content, the tension of the understanding of the activity of modelling by students and the tension of deciding what to do in the modelling practice. Thus, the analysis of the data suggests a discursive dimension for the tensions in the teachers' discourses in relation to unexpected situations that happen in the practice of mathematical modelling.
Frick, L., E. Bitzer, et al. (2007). “Integrating assessment and recognition of Prior learning in South African higher education: a university case study." Education as Change 11(2): 131-155.
Abstract: The article reports on the integration of assessment and recognition of prior learning (ARPL) at postgraduate level in one South African university. An analysis of interviews with administrators, lecturers and students who have been involved in the ARPL process provides insight into the implementation practices that accompany the formal introduction of ARPL into the institution. The factors necessary to support ARPL policy implementation, the scope of assessment procedures and the facilitation of ARPL in a learner-centered manner are discussed as focal areas for quality assurance in ARPL integration. Key words: assessment and recognition of prior learning; university; case study.
Higgs, P. and B. van Wyk (2007). “The Transformation of University teaching and learning: An African Philosophical perspective." Indilinga 6(2): 177-187.
Abstract: There are historical, institutional and cultural differences that influence teaching and learning in South African universities. There are also different beliefs about how relevance and responsiveness are constituted, and about the pedagogical principles that should apply in transferring knowledge (Council on Higher Education 2004: 101). In recognition of these differences, we argue in this article that an African educational discourse can make a significant contribution to teaching and learning in South African universities.
Hilsdon, J. and E. M. Bitzer (2007). “To become an asker of questions: A functional-narrative model to assist students in preparing postgraduate research proposals." SAJHE 21(8): 1194-1206.
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Kapp, C. (2000). “Emotional Intelligence (EQ) and success in post-graduate studies: a pilot study." SAJHE 14(3): 151-160.
Abstract: Emotional Intelligence profiles completed by post-graduate students provided some indication that high responses at the “optimal" and “proficient" levels of most of the scales seem to differentiate between successful and unsuccessful students. (EV)
Kember, D. and K. P. Kwan (2000). “Lecturer's approaches to teaching in their relationship to conceptions of good teaching " Instructional Science 28(5): 469-490.
Abstract: Previous research has established a close link between students' conceptions of learning, approaches to study and learning outcomes. Until recently, there have been few studies of lecturers' approaches to teaching in higher education and their relationship with conceptions of teaching. This study aimed to characterise the alternative approaches to teaching of university lecturers, and to examine the relationship between lecturers' approaches to teaching and their conceptions of good teaching. This study adopted an open naturalistic approach. Seventeen lecturers in three departments in a university were selected for interview based on their rank, years of teaching and industrial or professional experience. Lecturers were interviewed individually about their conceptions of good teaching, motivational strategies and effective teaching. The interview records were then content analysed by the two researchers of the study. The study found that (a) it was possible to characterise lecturers' approaches to teaching with one motivation and five strategy dimensions; (b) the conceptions of teaching of the lecturers were best described by two main orientations of transmissive and facilitative teaching; (c) lecturers who conceived teaching as transmitting knowledge were more likely to use content-centred approaches to teaching, while those who conceived teaching as facilitative tended to use learning-centred approaches. The study concludes by suggesting that fundamental changes to the quality of teaching and learning are unlikely to happen without changes to lecturers' conception of teaching.
Le Grange, L. (2000). “A case study of changing pedagogical practices at a higher education institution." SAJHE 14(1): 152-159.
Abstract: This article reports a case study that formed part of the South Africa/Australia Institutional Links project entitled “Educating for socio-ecological change: capacity-building in environmental education". The case study explores some of the pedagogical processes used in a pre-service education course at the University of Stellenbosch. It is argued that education policy changes in South Africa post 1990 have provided space for the transformation of pedagogical practices in the context of teacher education. Further, the role that collegial relationships between lecturer and students played in enabling critical reflection, is illuminated.
Le Grange, L. (2004). “E-learning: Some critical thoughts." SAJHE 18(1): 87-97.
Abstract: Currently, a technological revolution is taking place in higher education. The effects of this revolution are increasingly being felt in South Africa. The growth of e-learning has been described as explosive, unprecedented, amazing and disruptive. In this article I raise some critical thoughts about e-learning. In particular I raise some of these philosophical and educational issues pertinent to e-learning. In framing my discussion I give attention to the relationship between technology and culture, the relationship between information and learning, and the relationship between embodiment and learning. I conclude that extreme positions of rejectionism and boosterism are not desirable.
Le Grange, L. (2006). “Curriculum: A negleted area in discourses on higher education." SAJHE 20(2): 189-194.
Abstract: Extracted from text … 189 Editorial Curriculum: A neglected area in discourses on higher education L. le Grange Department of Curriculum Studies Stellenbosch University Stellenbosch, South Africa Email: firstname.lastname@example.org INTRODUCTION Curriculum is a complex and contested terrain that is variously described based on disparate philosophical lenses through which it is viewed. When the word curriculum is invoked it is generally understood as applying to school education, that is, to the prescribed learning programmes of schools or more broadly to the learning opportunities provided to school learners, rather than to higher education.
Le Grange, L. (2007). “The “theoretical foundations" of community service-learning: from taproots to rhizomes." Education as Change 11(3): 3-13.
Abstract: As a relatively new education phenomenon community service-learning has been subjected to various criticisms. One of the criticisms is that its theoretical foundation is thin. In this article I review efforts at tracing the theoretical roots of service-learning. Furthermore, I trouble the idea of seeking theoretical alibis for justifying educational work generally and service-learning more specifically. I argue that tracing the theoretical roots of service-learning is based on arborescent thinking, which is hierarchical and dichotomous. I propose that service-learning might be thought of rhizomatically so as to affirm what is excluded in western thought, creating new knowledge spaces in which indigenous knowledge and western knowledge can be transformed and integrated.[author]
Le Grange, L. and R. Newmark (2002). “Postgraduate research supervision in a socially distributed knowledge system: Some thoughts." SAJHE 16(3): 50-57.
Abstract: Postgraduate supervision is a higher education practice with a long history. Through the conventional “apprenticeship" model postgraduate supervision has served as an important vehicle of intellectual inheritance between generations. However, this model of supervision has come under scrutiny as a consequence of the massification of higher education as well as shifts in the way knowledge is produced and disseminated in contemporary society. In this article we discuss different models of postgraduate supervision and suggest that a new model of supervision might be emerging as we move towards a more socially distributed knowledge system. In such a model, those involved in the supervision process would include partners other than university lecturers and student-peers.
Reddy, C. and H. Menkveld (2000). “Teaching students to reflect: an exploratory study of the introduction of refective practice in a pre-service teacher education course in a university environment." SAJHE 14(3): 177-185.
Abstract: In this article we report research addressing the facilitation of reflection amongst novice (pre-service) teachers. This study is based on the analysis of written reports of 35 second-year and 36 third-year Bachelor of Primary Education (BPrim.Ed) student cohorts during a brief teaching practice in the 1999 mid-semester teaching practicum. Pro forma's were provided to students as guidelines for the reflective process. Students were also provided with guidelines to keep a journal which would inform their reflection while at the schools. They were required to hand in an assignment detailing their reflection on some of the lessons they taught during the practicum. Most student reflections focused on more technical aspects of teaching and classroom management, which are discussed in the article. We include a brief review of reflection and reflective practice, discuss levels of reflection, a short description of method of course development, a narration of findings, concluding remarks and propositions.
Shulman, L. S. (2005). “Signature Pedagogies in the professions." Daedalus.
Abstract: In this highly insightful talk, Dr. Lee Shulman discusses the wisdom gained from studying practices in preparing professionals in other fields such as medicine and law. He then lays out a compelling argument for the development of a"signature pedagogy" for preparing teachers. In order for a signature pedagogy to be effective, Shulman explains, it must be distinctive in the profession, pervasive within the curriculum, and found across institutions of teacher education.
Van der Walt, C. (2004). “The challenge of multilingualism: in response to the language policy of higher education." SAJHE 18(1): 140-152.
Abstract: This article investigates the requirements of the newly released Language Policy for Higher Education and provides guidelines for an educational approach that would support multilingual, higher education. In a nutshell, this policy challenges higher education institutions to provide in the linguistic needs of the new, more diverse and potentially larger student population brought about by greater equity of access, while maintaining quality in education and creating an environment where multilingualism can flourish. This article argues that the policy is necessary but does not go far enough and that although one can support its existence up to a point, it does not provide enough concrete proposals to steer implementation. Despite its laudable goals, the policy, therefore, cannot support the development of additive multilingualism. In an effort to provide more concrete goals to attain multilingualism, this article discusses the concept of biliteracy as a medium term goal on the road to multilingual higher education.
Van der Walt, C. and C. Brink (2005). “Multilingual universities: A national and international overview." SAJHE 19(4): 822-851.
Abstract: This article focuses on language planning and management in higher education, specifically at comprehensive research-oriented universities, with a view to comparing and analysing implementation processes and issues at different national and international institutions. Universities included in the study were the Universities of Ottawa (Canada), Helsinki and AGbo Akademi (both in Finland), Barcelona (Spain), Fribourg (Switzerland) and the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium). Inside South Africa a similar investigation was conducted with two historically Afrikaans universities; one urban (University of Pretoria) and one rural university (University of North-West, Potchefstroom and Vaal Triangle Campuses). The researchers interviewed vice-chancellors, registrars and other officials with the executive responsibility to implement institutional language policies, plans and/ or procedures. The situation elsewhere in Africa is also described by looking at the available literature. The study concludes that the way in which multilingualism is managed is very context-dependent. The implications for South African institutions are discussed by looking at cultural mandates that are supported by state or regional governments, the perceived cost of multilingualism and the status of mother tongues in different environments. The discussion concludes by discussing national and international agendas that compete for equal treatment and limited budgets.
Waghid, Y. (2006). “Reclaiming freedom and friendship through postgraduate student supervision." Teaching in Higher Education 11(4): 427-439.
Abstract: Postgraduate student supervision at the level of doctoral and masters studies can be enjoyable, frustrating and demanding. In this article I identify some of the challenging moments in postgraduate student supervision I have encountered over the past few years, focusing on the notion of learning as understood by some students. My contention, based on my interactions with doctoral and masters candidates,1 1. By far the majority of students I have supervised over the past seven years have been Black and historically disadvantaged. View all notes is that learning is understood by students as something that can at best be associated with a consumer and market-oriented 'logic', but that this conception of learning works against what ought to constitute 'authentic' learning. Hence, I argue for higher levels of freedom and friendship to become more prevalent in postgraduate student supervision in order to cultivate a culture of 'authentic' learning different from one that advocates a consumer, market-driven 'logic'.
Whitehead, J. (2008). “Using a living theory methodology in improving practice and generating educational knowledge in living theories." EJOLTS 1(1): 103-126.
Abstract: The approach outlined below is focused on a living theory methodology for improving practice and generating knowledge from questions of the kind 'How do I improve what I am doing?' It also includes a new epistemology for educational knowledge. The new epistemology rests on a living logic of educational enquiry and living standards of judgment (Laidlaw, 1996) that include flows of life affirming energy with values that carry hope for the future of humanity. The presentation emphasizes the importance of the uniqueness of each individual's living educational theory (Whitehead, 1989) in improving practice and generating knowledge. It emphasizes the importance of individual creativity in contributing to improving practice and knowledge from within historical and cultural opportunities and constraints in the social contexts of the individual's life and work. The web-based version of this presentation demonstrates the importance of local, national and international communicative collaborations for improving practice and generating knowledge in the context of globalizing communications. Through its multi-media representations of educational relationships and explanations of educational influence in learning it seeks to communicate new living standards of judgment. These standards are relationally-dynamic and grounded in both improving practice and generating knowledge. They express the life-affirming energy of individuals, cultures and the cosmos, with values and understandings that it is claimed carry hope for the future of humanity. Key words: Living Theory; Action Research; Methodology; Standards of Judgment.
Wu, H. (1997). “On the education of Mathematics teachers."
Abstract: In this article, I will address only the first problem: how to provide better mathematical education for the teachers. In the process, I will also address the larger issue of how to better educate our math majors in general.